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Title: Combined association of clinical and lifestyle factors with non-restorative sleep: The Nagahama Study.
Authors: Matsumoto, Takeshi
Tabara, Yasuharu
Murase, Kimihiko
Takahashi, Yoshimitsu
Setoh, Kazuya
Kawaguchi, Takahisa
Muro, Shigeo
Kadotani, Hiroshi
Kosugi, Shinji
Sekine, Akihiro
Yamada, Ryo
Nakayama, Takeo
Mishima, Michiaki
Matsuda, Fumihiko
Chin, Kazuo
Author's alias: 高橋, 由光
陳, 和夫
Issue Date: 9-Mar-2017
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Journal title: PLOS ONE
Volume: 12
Issue: 3
Start page: e0171849
Abstract: Background: Non-restorative sleep (NRS) was suggested to be associated with cardiovascular outcomes. However, causative factors for NRS have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to clarify factors and their relationships with NRS to better understand the clinical and epidemiological implications of NRS and to develop a score that can objectively evaluate NRS status. Methods: Study subjects consisted of 9, 788 community residents (age 53.6 ± 13.4 y). Subjective NRS as well as possible clinical and lifestyle factors for NRS were investigated by questionnaires. Other clinical parameters were obtained from personal records of information obtained at the baseline examination. Results: A total of 3, 261 participants complained of NRS. Factors independently associated with subjective NRS were younger age (odds ratio = 1.43), use of a hypnotic drug (2.04), irregular sleep schedule (2.02), short sleep duration (<5 h, 11.7; 5–6 h, 4.81; 6–7 h, 2.40), frequent sleepiness (2.33), routine stress (4.63), no habitual exercise (1.61), nocturia symptoms (1.43), symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (1.44), and depression (1.46) (all P <0.001). The NRS score comprised of these 10 factors was linearly associated with the frequency of subjective NRS (Ptrend <0.001). Frequency of individuals with a high NRS score was greater in women (52.3%) than in men (42.1%, P<0.001), while no clear association was observed with common risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Conclusions: NRS was a phenomenon representing various clinical and lifestyle features. Careful attention should be paid to individuals with a high NRS score who might be at risk for mental fatigue and have unfavorable lifestyle factors.
Rights: © 2017 Matsumoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/218960
DOI(Published Version): 10.1371/journal.pone.0171849
PubMed ID: 28278155
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