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Title: 朝鮮における時憲暦の受容過程とその思想的背景
Other Titles: The introduction of the Chinese calendrical system in Chosen and its philosophical background
Authors: 全, 勇勳  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: JUN, Yong Hoon
Issue Date: 30-Mar-2009
Publisher: 京都大學人文科學研究所
Journal title: 東方學報
Volume: 84
Start page: 302
End page: 281
Abstract: This paper describes the bilateral characteristics of annual calendars 暦書 in Chosŏn 朝鮮(1392-1896). The Sino-Korean relationship in the Chosŏn period has been often called "the investiture system"冊封體系, under which Chosŏn was impelled to accept the Chinese calendar as one of actions by which to receive the investiture. On the other hand, Chosŏn tried to construct and issue its own annual calendar because doing so was a symbolic practice of Confucian ideology, "observing sky and granting season" 觀象授時 to the people. Until the adoption the of Shixianli 時憲暦 system, Chosŏn issued its annual calendar according to the Chiljongsan 七政算 system, which was developed in Chosŏn in the fifteenth century by assembling the Chinese calendrical systems of Shoushili 授時暦 and Datongli 大統暦. Under the investiture relationship with Ming China, Chosŏn was also compelled to accept the annual calendar from Ming China, which claimed suzerainty over Chosŏn. When Chosŏn submitted to Qing China in 1637, the suzerain state was changed from Ming to Qing, and Chosŏn was required to accept the Qing's calendar instead of Ming's one. Qing's adoption of the Shixsianli system in 1645 resulted in Chosŏn's introducing that system in calculating domestic calendars beginning in 1654. Chosŏn strove to catch up with the systematic knowledge of Shixianli and a general operation of the Shixianli system, including a calculation of eclipses and planetary motions, was carried out beginning in 1710. Although Chinese revisions of the Shixianli system, such as Lixiang kacheng 暦象考成 in 1726 and Lixiang kaocheng houbian暦象考成後篇in 1742 presented a lofty goal for Chosŏn astronomers, they reached a high level of operation of the Shixinali system in the 1760s. Since Chosŏn was a subordinate state under the investiture relationship with Qing, Chosŏn was restricted in using the local standard calculation in its calendar. In spite of its proficiency of calendrical calculation, therefore, Chosŏn had to revise its annual calendar to coincide with Qing's calendar. In the use of Shixianli system in Chosŏn period, we can find bilateral characteristics of calendar. From a viewpoint of investiture system, accepting Qing's calendar every year was a representation of investiture which identified that the relationship was stable. Chosŏn, on the other hand, tried to issue its own calendar to be a desirable Confucian state realizing the ideology of "observing sky and granting season".
DOI: 10.14989/134678
Appears in Collections:第84册

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