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タイトル: 佛塔の中國的變容
その他のタイトル: The Sinification of the Buddhist Stupa
仏塔の中国的変容
著者: 向井, 佑介  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
著者名の別形: MUKAI, Yusuke
発行日: 20-Dec-2013
出版者: 京都大學人文科學研究所
誌名: 東方學報
巻: 88
開始ページ: 81
終了ページ: 110
抄録: This paper will consider the Sinification of the Buddhist stupa, which originated in India, through an examination of archaeological findings, iconographic materials and written documents from early Chinese Buddhism. First, I examine how early Chinese Buddhist temples were planned, and how religious activities were practiced in there. The pagodas at that time were placed in the center of temples and played important role in religious activity. Recent excavation at the northern Wei temple on the western hill of the Yungang 雲岡 caves clarifies that the buildings of this temple consisted of a pagoda placed in a courtyard and a square-shaped monastery surrounding it. This finding indicates that this style of temple, which originated in the Gandharan vihara, was introduced into Chinese Buddhist temples by the late 5th century. In addition, investigation of the Siyuan-fosi 思遠佛寺 temple at Fangshan 方山and the Siyan-fotu 思燕佛圖 temple at Chaoyang 朝陽 proves that the inside of these pagodas were decorated with clay statuary and wall paintings. The inside of these decorated pagodas was a space for not only worship by believers but also meditation by monks, and through these religious practices they prayed for ascending to Tusita 兜率 heaven where Maitreya Bodhisattva 彌勒菩薩 was believed to live. Second, I discuss how people understood the cosmology of Chinese pagodas by fusing the Buddhist perspectives of the universe with traditional Chinese ideas about immortality and ascension. In China, Buddhist stupas were changed into many-storied tall buildings, on the top of which small stupas were placed. This change occurred because the Buddha was thought to be similar to Chinese immortals, and pagodas were built on the model of the tall buildings on which immortals were deified. The objects called Lupan 露盤 on the top of pagodas symbolize the Chinese traditional idea of immortals, as the origin of this term lies not in Buddhist literatures but derives from the word Chenglupan 承露盤, dew basins on the top of the tall buildings for immortals. On the other hand, pagodas, at that time, were sometimes united with Mt. Sumeru 須彌山, and people desired to ascend to Tushita heaven of Maitreya Bodhisattva through this mythic mountain. Connecting heaven and earth, pagodas embodied ideas about immortality and ascension, and increased peoples' belief in them.
DOI: 10.14989/180574
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/180574
出現コレクション:第88册

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