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Title: <論文>現代における「全体性」のかたち : モースにおける「人間」観の検討
Other Titles: <ARTICLES>The Form of 'Totality' in a Modern Society : On the Idea of 'Man' in the Thought of Marcel Manss
Authors: 藤吉, 圭二  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: FUJIYOSHI, Keiji
Issue Date: 25-Dec-1995
Publisher: 京都大学文学部社会学研究室
Journal title: 京都社会学年報 : KJS = Kyoto journal of sociology
Volume: 3
Start page: 111
End page: 125
Abstract: The idea of 'homme total' is very important in the thought of Marcel Mauss, especially in his well-known 'Essai sur le don'. In this article, he shows that men by their nature, give presents each other, and that they, in doing so, obey three obligatory principles, which command you to give a present, to receive one and to make one in return generously. He takes this recognition through studying so-called 'primitive' societies. Furthermore, he tries to apply it to the problems which his contemporary modern French Society suffers from. Though his application of 'primitive' principles to the modern society makes the readers of 'Essai sur le don' confused in a sense, it is prepared and justified by Mauss himself. According to Mauss, men as social-beings, internalize the 'logic' of society in which they live. And their life is maintained and animated by the power of this 'logic'. This aspect of a human life is very clear in so-called 'primitive' society. In this type of society, men's behavior can be regarded as a part of the conformation of the society which Mauss considers a certain type of 'cosmos' where men 'breathe'. The tight connection between men and society constantly supported and enforced by men's behavior according to the 'logic' of the society. And the act of present-exchanging is done in the same manner. The present-exchanging each other means not only an approval of 'logic' of society, but also a recognition each other as an indispensable unit of the society. Mauss explains this essential aspect of the present-exchanging is still alive and even important in our modern society, and emphasizes that we must and can give a pertinent position to it in a manner which our society adopt. This insight of Mauss about a modern society and human beings has still today much to suggest.
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