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Title: In situ detection and identification of hesperidin crystals in satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) peel cells.
Authors: Inoue, Tsuyoshi
Yoshinaga, Arata  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Takabe, Keiji
Yoshioka, Terutaka
Ogawa, Kazunori
Sakamoto, Masahiro
Azuma, Jun-ichi
Honda, Yoichi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Author's alias: 本田, 与一
Keywords: In situ detection
Raman microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
fruit peel
organic crystals
Citrus unshiu
Issue Date: 6-Nov-2014
Publisher: wiley
Journal title: Phytochemical analysis
Volume: 26
Issue: 2
Start page: 105
End page: 110
Abstract: [Introduction]Hesperidin, a flavonoid known to have important pharmacological effects, accumulates particularly in the peels of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). Although histochemical studies have suggested that hesperidin forms crystals in some tissues of the Rutaceae and Umbelliferae, there has been no rigorous in situ detection or identification of hesperidin crystals in C. unshiu. [Objective]To characterise the chemical component of the crystals found in C. unshiu peels using Raman microscopy. [Methods]Sections of C. unshiu peels were made. The distribution and morphology of crystals in the sections were analysed microscopically. Raman microscopy was used to detect hesperidin in the sections directly. [Results]The crystals were more abundant in immature peel and were observed particularly in areas surrounding vascular bundles, around the border between the flavedo and albedo layers and just below the epidermal cells. In the morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy, needle-shaped crystals aggregated and formed clusters of spherical crystals. Spectra obtained by Raman microscopy of the crystals in the peel sections were consistent with those of the hesperidin standard. [Conclusion]This study showed the detailed distribution of crystals in C. unshiu peels and their main component was identified using Raman microscopy to be hesperidin for the first time.
Rights: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Inoue T., Yoshinaga A., Takabe K., Yoshioka T., Ogawa K., Sakamoto M., Azuma J.-i., and Honda Y. (2015) In Situ Detection and Identification of Hesperidin Crystals in Satsuma Mandarin (Citrus unshiu) Peel Cells, Phytochem. Anal., 26, 105–110, which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
The full-text file will be made open to the public on 6 NOV 2015 in accordance with publisher's 'Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving'.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1002/pca.2541
PubMed ID: 25376900
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