|Title:||Plasma membrane translocation of a protein needle based on a triple-stranded β-helix motif.|
|Authors:||Sanghamitra, Nusrat J M|
Ohtan Wang, Dan
Kitagawa, Susumu https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6956-9543 (unconfirmed)
|Author's alias:||稲葉, 央|
|Publisher:||Royal Society of Chemistry|
|Journal title:||Molecular BioSystems|
|Abstract:||Plasma membrane translocation is challenging due to the barrier of the cell membrane. Contrary to the synthetic cell-penetrating materials, tailed bacteriophages use cell-puncturing protein needles to puncture the cell membranes as an initial step of the DNA injection process. Cell-puncturing protein needles are thought to remain functional in the native phages. In this paper, we found that a bacteriophage T4 derived protein needle of 16 nm length spontaneously translocates through the living cell membrane. The β-helical protein needle (β-PN) internalizes into human red blood cells that lack endocytic machinery. By comparing the cellular uptake of β-PNs with modified surface charge, it is shown that the uptake efficiency is maximum when it has a negative charge corresponding to a zeta potential value of -16 mV. In HeLa cells, uptake of β-PN incorporates endocytosis independent mechanisms with partial macropinocytosis dependence. The endocytosis dependence of the uptake increases when the surface charges of β-PNs are modified to positive or negative. Thus, these results suggest that natural DNA injecting machinery can serve as an inspiration to design new class of cell-penetrating materials with a tailored mechanism.|
|Description:||Accepted 25 Jul 2014.|
|Rights:||This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.|
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version.
|Appears in Collections:||Journal Articles|
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