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dc.contributor.authorYabuno, Keikoen
dc.contributor.authorMorise, Jyojien
dc.contributor.authorKizuka, Yasuhikoen
dc.contributor.authorHashii, Noritakaen
dc.contributor.authorKawasaki, Nanaen
dc.contributor.authorTakahashi, Satoruen
dc.contributor.authorMiyata, Shinjien
dc.contributor.authorIzumikawa, Tomomien
dc.contributor.authorKitagawa, Hiroshien
dc.contributor.authorTakematsu, Hiromuen
dc.contributor.authorOka, Shogoen
dc.contributor.alternative森瀬, 譲二ja
dc.contributor.alternative竹松, 弘ja
dc.contributor.alternative岡, 昌吾ja
dc.description.abstractHuman natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R) is highly expressed in the brain and required for learning and neural plasticity.We previously demonstrated that expression of the HNK-1 epitope is mostly abolished in knockoutmice for GlcAT-P (B3gat1), a major glucuronyltransferase required for HNK-1 biosynthesis, but remained in specific regions such as perineuronal nets (PNNs) in these mutantmice. Considering PNNs are mainly composed of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and regulate neural plasticity, GlcAT-P-independent expression of HNK-1 in PNNs is suggested to play a role in neural plasticity. However, the function, structure, carrier glycoprotein and biosynthetic pathway for GlcAT-P-irrelevant HNK-1 epitope remain unclear. In this study, we identified a unique HNK-1 structure on aggrecan in PNNs. To determine the biosynthetic pathway for the novel HNK-1, we generated knockout mice for GlcAT-S (B3gat2), the other glucuronyltransferase required for HNK-1 biosynthesis. However, GlcAT-P and GlcAT-S double-knockout mice did not exhibit reduced HNK-1 expression compared with single GlcAT-P-knockoutmice, indicating an unusual biosynthetic pathway for the HNK-1 epitope in PNNs. Aggrecan was purified from cultured cells in which GlcAT-P and-S are not expressed and we determined the structure of the novel HNK-1 epitope using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) as a sulfated linkage region of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), HSO3-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-R. Taken together, we propose a hypothetical model where GlcAT-I, the sole glucuronyltransferase required for synthesis of the GAG linkage, is also responsible for biosynthesis of the novel HNK-1 on aggrecan. These results could lead to discovery of new roles of the HNK-1 epitope in neural plasticity.en
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen
dc.rights© 2015 Yabuno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.en
dc.titleA sulfated glycosaminoglycan linkage region is a novel type of human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) epitope expressed on aggrecan in perineuronal netsen
dc.typejournal article-
dc.type.niitypeJournal Article-
dc.identifier.jtitlePLOS ONEen
dcterms.accessRightsopen access-
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