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Title: CXCL1 is elevated in the urine of bladder cancer patients
Authors: Burnier, Andre
Shimizu, Yoshiko
Dai, Yunfeng
Nakashima, Masakazu
Matsui, Yoshiyuki
Ogawa, Osamu
Rosser, Charles J.
Furuya, Hideki
Author's alias: 松井, 喜之
小川, 修
Keywords: Bladder cancer
Issue Date: 15-Oct-2015
Publisher: SpringerOpen
Journal title: SpringerPlus
Volume: 4
Thesis number: 610
Abstract: Chemokines, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), regulate tumor epithelial-stromal interactions that facilitate tumor growth and invasion. Recently, several studies have linked CXCL1 expression to bladder cancer (BCa). In this study, we aimed to determine if increased levels of urinary CXCL1 were found in BCa patients. Voided urines from 86 subjects, cancer subjects (n = 43), non-cancer subjects (n = 43) were analyzed. The protein concentration of CXCL1 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CXCL1 concentration level was normalized using urinary protein and urinary creatinine concentrations. We used the area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) to investigate the performance of CXCL1 in detecting BCa. Mean urinary concentrations of CXCL1 were significantly higher in subjects with BCa compared to subjects without BCa (179.8 ± 371.7 pg/mg of creatinine vs. 28.2 ± 71.9 pg/mg, respectively p = 0.0009). Urinary CXCL1 possessed a sensitivity of 55.81 %, specificity of 83.72 %, positive predictive value of 77.42 %, negative predictive value of 65.46 %, and an overall accuracy of 69.77 % (AUROC: 0.7015, 95 % CI 0.5903–0.8126). These results indicate that CXCL1 is elevated in BCa when compared to non-cancer subjects, but lacks robustness as a standalone urinary biomarker. Additional studies into CXCL1 may shed more light on the role of CXCL1 in BCa tumorigenesis as well as ramifications of therapeutically targeting CXCL1.
Rights: © 2015, Burnier et al. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1186/s40064-015-1393-9
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