|Title:||Distance-dependent switching of anti-predator behavior of frogs from immobility to fleeing|
|Author's alias:||西海, 望|
Optimal flight initiation distance
|Journal title:||Journal of Ethology|
|Abstract:||To avoid predation, many animals are required to appropriately switch between immobility for crypsis and fleeing for escape. We conducted two staged-encounter experiments using a frog and a snake to examine factors that affect the occurrence of immobility and fleeing, and to evaluate the efficiency of them. The first experiment demonstrated that frogs initially exhibit immobility, when snakes are moving at a long distance, and then switch from immobility to fleeing at a shorter distance even when snakes have not detected them. The second experiment demonstrated that snakes at 400–800 mm distance detect only fleeing frogs, whereas snakes at 100 mm or closer detect both immobile and fleeing frogs. Thus, the ability of snakes to detect motionless frogs depends on the distance, and the distance-dependent switching can be considered an adaptive strategy of the frog. However, a previous model predicts that cryptic prey should flee immediately on seeing a predator or not flee until being detected by the predator. To explain this discordance, we propose two factors: engagement of intensive searching mode by predator at short distance and effects of sudden fleeing at close distance. We suggest incorporating them in future theory for better understanding of anti-predator strategy.|
|Rights:||© Japan Ethological Society and Springer Japan 2014.|
This is an open access article.
|Appears in Collections:||Journal Articles|
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