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Title: <論文>「被害者」否定言説の再考-- 韓国のフィリピン人女性「エンターテイナー」の人身取引事例を中心に
Other Titles: Challenging the Denial of "Victims" :Based on Research of the Human Trafficking Cases of Filipino Female "Entertainers" in South Korea
Authors: 辻本, 登志子  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: TSUJIMOTO, Toshiko
Keywords: 人身取引
human trafficking
Arts and Performance Visa
Filipino female "entertainers"
South Korea
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2018
Publisher: 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科 文化人類学分野
Journal title: コンタクト・ゾーン
Volume: 10
Issue: 2018
Start page: 2
End page: 40
Abstract: 本稿は人文社会学分野において広く援用されてきた「エージェント」/「被害者」の二元論や「被害者」を否定する言説が、人身取引研究においても支配的であることに注目する。そしてこの言説を、「被害者」の自己責任を問う新自由主義と親和的であるとする批判的論考[McLeer 1998; Dahl 2009; Wilson 2011; Stringer 2014]に依拠し、韓国におけるフィリピン人女性「エンターテイナー」の人身取引事例から、これまでの「被害者」否定言説を再検討する。 まず「被害者」を否定する言説は、人身取引をいかに個人の「エージェンシー」やNGO の温情主義の問題にすり替え、「脱政治化」[Stringer 2014]してきたのか検討する。そしてフィリピン人女性「エンターテイナー」の「エージェンシー」や「労働権」が、法制度上及び業主の管理統制によって剥奪されてきたにも関わらず、実体の伴わない「エージェンシー」が偽装されていることを明らかにする。さらに各種搾取や人身取引の「被害者」ではなく、かの女らが業主の「共犯者」や出入国管理法違反の「犯罪者」として強制送還されてきた事実を指摘する。 本稿では、韓国のフィリピン人女性「エンターテイナー」の「被害者性」を否定し「エージェンシー」を称揚する言説が被害を社会に告発していく道を遮断し、結果的に強制送還などの「二次被害」[Stringer 2014]の助長に関与してきたことを指摘する。一方で被害を告発する被害者の「エージェンシー」に注目することにより、これまで「可哀そう」で「受け身」という皮相的な概念で語られてきた人身取引の「被害者」領域を再考し、「被害者」の地位は剥奪された移住労働の権利を求める「エージェント」としての立場と何ら矛盾しないことを明らかにする。
This article challenges the binary ideas of "agents" and "victims" in the discourse of denying "victimhood" that has become visible in the fields of humanities and social sciences for the past years. Drawing upon discussion of feminist scholarship which criticizes the denial of "victims" for its affinity with neoliberalism – blaming "victims" and imposing the self-responsibility on them – [McLeer 1998; Dahl 2009; Wilson 2011; Stringer 2014], I elucidate how such discourse of denying "victims" has also become confluent with burgeoning studies of human trafficking recently. Based on empirical case studies of Filipino female "entertainers" who have been trafficked to South Korea, I examine how the denial of "victimhood" has caused "depoliticization" [Stringer 2014] that reduces social and political agendas of human trafficking to the subjects of individual "agency" while shifting the blame onto an alleged paternalistic attitude of NGOs toward victims. I critically engage in the dilemma that although Filipino female "entertainers" have been deprived of their "agency" and "labor rights" at the institutional level, they have not been entitled to the status of "victims" and have been deported as the "accomplices" of the club owners and the "criminals" who violated the immigration laws while being misused, indicating signs of their "spontaneity" and "agency" mostly forged by the investigation authorities in South Korea [Shin 2015]. In this article, I demonstrate that the contrast of celebrating "agency" and denying "victimhood" of Filipino female "entertainers" in South Korea has blocked the path to making an accusation of the damage inflicted upon them, eventually causing "secondary victimization" [Stringer 2014] such as deportation of those women. Through careful consideration of human trafficking built upon numerous power relations, I envisage rediscovering "agency" in "victims" and broadening the boundary of "victims" that ensures their access to socioeconomic and political rights by rethinking a narrowly defined image of victim by weakness, miserableness, and passivity. Lastly, paying attention to the pursuit of the victims for an opportunity to work in South Korea without dehumanizing themselves any longer, I demonstrate that "agents or migrant laborers" and "victims", usually regarded as incompatible, are in fact never mutually exclusive but "victims" have agency to make claims to retrieve their deprived rights as migrant laborers.
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