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Title: Environmental Implications of Resource Security Strategies for Critical Minerals: A Case Study of Copper in Japan
Authors: Motoori, Ran
McLellan, Benjamin  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Tezuka, Tetsuo
Author's alias: 本告, 蘭
手塚, 哲央
Keywords: resource security
deep ocean mining
environmental impact
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2018
Publisher: MDPI AG
Journal title: Minerals
Volume: 8
Issue: 12
Thesis number: 558
Abstract: In the assessment of critical minerals, environmental impacts have been a focus of a number of methodologies. In the case of resource security for critical minerals, there are a variety of potential strategies that might be used to reduce criticality from the supply risk perspective, but the environmental consequences of these strategies need to be evaluated. Japan is a country with a heavy dependence on imported materials, and thus has examined various alternative resource supply strategies to improve resource security. This study examines these alternative strategies and evaluates the consequential environmental implications, focusing on the domestic impacts in Japan. Utilization of deep ocean mining and end-of-life home appliance recycling are examined as alternatives against the conventional, import-oriented process. From the obtained results, deep ocean mining, providing 30% of domestic copper demand with the remainder supplied from recycling, is the current optimal solution with regards to the environmental impact.
Rights: © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
DOI(Published Version): 10.3390/min8120558
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