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Title: Deformation of island-arc lithosphere due to steady plate subduction
Authors: Fukahata, Yukitoshi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro
Author's alias: 深畑, 幸俊
Keywords: Seismic cycle
Gravity anomalies and Earth structure
Subduction zone processes
Kinematics of crustal and mantle deformation
Issue Date: Feb-2016
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Journal title: Geophysical Journal International
Volume: 204
Issue: 2
Start page: 825
End page: 840
Abstract: Steady plate subduction elastically brings about permanent lithospheric deformation in island arcs, though this effect has been neglected in most studies based on elastic dislocation theory. We investigate the characteristics of the permanent lithospheric deformation using a kinematic model, in which steady slip motion is given along a plate interface in the elastic lithosphere overlying the viscoelastic asthenosphere under gravity. As a rule of thumb, long-term lithospheric deformation can be understood as a bending of an elastic plate floating on non-viscous fluid, because the asthenosphere behaves like water on the long term. The steady slip below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary does not contribute to long-term lithospheric deformation. Hence, the key parameters that control the lithospheric deformation are only the thickness of the lithosphere and the geometry of the plate interface. Slip on a plate interface generally causes substantial vertical displacement, and gravity always tries to retrieve the original gravitational equilibrium. For a curved plate interface gravity causes convex upward bending of the island-arc lithosphere, while for a planar plate interface gravity causes convex downward bending. Larger curvature and thicker lithosphere generally results in larger deformation. When the curvature changes along the plate interface, internal deformation is also involved intrinsically, which modifies the deformation field due to gravity. Because the plate interface generally has some curvature, at least near the trench, convex upward bending of the island-arc lithosphere, which involves uplift of island-arc and subsidence around the trench, is always realized. On the other hand, the deformation field of the island-arc lithosphere sensitively depends on lithospheric thickness and plate interface geometry. These characteristics obtained by the numerical simulation are consistent with observed topography and free-air gravity anomalies in subduction zones: a pair of topography and gravity anomalies, high in the arc and low around the trench, is observed without exceptions all over the world, while there are large variety in the amplitude and horizontal scale of the topography and gravity anomalies.
Rights: This article has been accepted for publication in Geophysical Journal International ©: 2015 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1093/gji/ggv482
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