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Title: Gene flow signature in the S-allele region of cultivated buckwheat
Authors: Mizuno, Nobuyuki
Yasui, Yasuo
Author's alias: 水野, 信之
安井, 康夫
Keywords: Buckwheat
Crop evolution
Heteromorphic self-incompatibility
Issue Date: 3-Apr-2019
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd.
Journal title: BMC Plant Biology
Volume: 19
Thesis number: 125
Abstract: Bachground: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) is an annual crop that originated in southern China. The nutritious seeds are used in cooking much like cereal grains. Buckwheat is an outcrossing species with heteromorphic self-incompatibility due to its dimorphic (i.e., short- and long-styled) flowers and intra-morph infertility. The floral morphology and intra-morph incompatibility are both determined by a single S locus. Plants with short-styled flowers are heterozygous (S/s) and plants with long-styled flowers are homozygous recessive (s/s) at this locus, and the S/S genotype is not found. Recently, we built a draft genome assembly of buckwheat and identified the 5.4-Mb-long S-allele region harbored by short-styled plants.In this study, the first report on the genome-wide diversity of buckwheat, we used a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) dataset to evaluate the genome-wide nucleotide diversity within cultivated buckwheat landraces worldwide. We also investigated the utility of the S-allele region for phylogenetic analysis of buckwheat. Results: Buckwheat showed high nucleotide diversity (0.0065), comparable to that of other outcrossing plants, based on a genome-wide simple nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Phylogenetic analyses based on genome-wide SNPs showed that cultivated buckwheat comprises two groups, Asian and European, and revealed lower nucleotide diversity in the European group (0.0055) and low differentiation between the Asian and European groups. The nucleotide diversity (0.0039) estimated from SNPs in the S-allele region is lower than that in genome-wide SNPs. Phylogenetic analysis based on this region detected three diverged groups, S-1, S-2, and S-3. Conclusion: The SNPs detected using the GBS dataset were effective for elucidating the evolutionary history of buckwheat, and led to the following conclusions: (1) the low nucleotide diversity of the entire genome in the European group and low differentiation between the Asian and European groups suggested genetic bottlenecks associated with dispersion from Asia to Europe, and/or recent intensified cultivation and selection in Europe; and (2) the high diversification in the S-allele region was indicative of gene flows from wild to cultivated buckwheat, suggesting that cultivated buckwheat may have multiple origins.
Rights: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1186/s12870-019-1730-1
PubMed ID: 30943914
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