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Title: Biogeographic variation in skull morphology across the Kra Isthmus in dusky leaf monkeys
Authors: Ito, Tsuyoshi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Koyabu, Daisuke
Author's alias: 伊藤, 毅
Keywords: geometric morphometrics
Indochinese‐Sundaic transition
Isthmus of Kra
South‐East Asia
Thai–Malay Peninsula
Issue Date: Nov-2018
Publisher: Wiley
Journal title: Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research
Volume: 56
Issue: 4
Start page: 599
End page: 610
Abstract: Despite the growing literature on the underlying factors of geographical phenotypic variation, little is known about how and to what extent biogeographic barriers in South‐East Asia have shaped morphological variation in primates. We aimed to investigate the geographical variations in skull morphology in dusky leaf monkeys by decomposing them into clinal (latitudinal), non‐clinal spatial (discrete difference between regions north and south of the Isthmus of Kra), and environment‐related components. We applied geometric morphometrics to measure 53 adult male specimens from 36 localities, covering the regions both north and south of the Isthmus of Kra. A linear model was used to test the effects of region (north vs. south of the Isthmus of Kra), latitude, and environmental factors (temperature and rainfall) on the size and shape of skulls. A part of variation in skull shape differed moderately between the regions in the north and south of the Isthmus of Kra, and this difference cannot be explained by latitudinal and environmental factors. However, for size and the majority of variations in shape, we detected limited contributions of region and the two environmental factors. Shape differentiation that was unexplained by latitudinal and environmental factors suggests that dusky leaf monkeys may have experienced a population division due to habitat constriction around the Isthmus of Kra. However, this divergence probably has been obscured by subsequent gene flow between populations after habitat recovery.
Rights: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [Tsuyoshi Ito, Daisuke Koyabu. Biogeographic variation in skull morphology across the Kra Isthmus in dusky leaf monkeys. 'Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research' 56(4), 599-610], which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.
The full-text file will be made open to the public on 04 October 2019 in accordance with publisher's 'Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving'
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1111/jzs.12229
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