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Title: Martial Arts "Kendo" and the Motivation Network During Attention Processing: An fMRI Study
Authors: Hironobu, Fujiwara  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Tsukasa, Ueno
Sayaka, Yoshimura  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4273-8575 (unconfirmed)
Kei, Kobayashi
Takashi, Miyagi
Naoya, Oishi
Toshiya, Murai
Author's alias: 藤原, 広臨
植野, 司
義村, さや香
小林, 啓
宮城, 崇史
大石, 直也
村井, 俊哉
Keywords: Budo
Kendo
motivation network
functional connectivity
attention
Issue Date: 22-May-2019
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Journal title: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Volume: 13
Thesis number: 170
Abstract: Japanese martial arts, Budo, have been reported to improve cognitive function, especially attention. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of the effect of Budo on attention processing has not yet been investigated. Kendo, a type of fencing using bamboo swords, is one of the most popular forms of Budo worldwide. We investigated the difference in functional connectivity (FC) between Kendo players (KPs) and non-KPs (NKPs) during an attention-related auditory oddball paradigm and during rest. The analyses focused on the brain network related to “motivation.” Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and task-based fMRI using the oddball paradigm were performed in healthy male volunteers (14 KPs and 11 NKPs). Group differences in FC were tested using CONN-software within the motivation network, which consisted of 22 brain regions defined by a previous response-conflict task-based fMRI study with a reward cue. Daily general physical activities were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We also investigated the impact of major confounders, namely, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, IPAQ score, body mass index (BMI), and reaction time (RT) in the oddball paradigm. Resting-state fMRI revealed that KPs had a significantly lower FC than NKPs between the right nucleus accumbens and right frontal eye field (FEF) within the motivation network. Conversely, KPs exhibited a significantly higher FC than NKPs between the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the left precentral gyrus (PCG) within the network during the auditory oddball paradigm [statistical thresholds, False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05]. These results remained significant after controlling for major covariates. Our results suggest that attenuated motivation network integrity at rest together with enhanced motivation network integrity during attentional demands might underlie the instantaneous concentration abilities of KPs.
Rights: © 2019 Fujiwara, Ueno, Yoshimura, Kobayashi, Miyagi, Oishi and Murai. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/245129
DOI(Published Version): 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00170
PubMed ID: 31191277
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