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Title: Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin
Authors: Giang, P. H.
Harada, H.
Fujii, S.
Lien, N. P. H.
Hai, H. T.
Anh, P. N.
Tanaka, S.
Author's alias: 原田, 英典
藤井, 滋穂
田中, 周平
Keywords: Chemical fertilizer
Paddy fields
Issue Date: Oct-2015
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Journal title: Water Science and Technology
Volume: 72
Issue: 7
Start page: 1072
End page: 1081
Abstract: Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil.
Rights: ©IWA Publishing 2015. The definitive peer-reviewed and edited version of this article is published in 'Water Science and Technology' (2015) 72 (7): 1072–1081, doi: 10.2166/wst.2015.312 and is available at
The full-text file will be made open to the public on 16 June 2016 in accordance with publisher's 'Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving'.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version.
DOI(Published Version): 10.2166/wst.2015.312
PubMed ID: 26398021
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