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Title: Controlling the shape of 3D microstructures by temperature and light
Authors: Hippler, Marc
Blasco, Eva
Qu, Jingyuan
Tanaka, Motomu  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Barner-Kowollik, Christopher
Wegener, Martin
Bastmeyer, Martin
Author's alias: 田中, 求
Keywords: Gels and hydrogels
Mechanical properties
Issue Date: 16-Jan-2019
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal title: Nature Communications
Volume: 10
Thesis number: 232
Abstract: Stimuli-responsive microstructures are critical to create adaptable systems in soft robotics and biosciences. For such applications, the materials must be compatible with aqueous environments and enable the manufacturing of three-dimensional structures. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) is a well-established polymer, exhibiting a substantial response to changes in temperature close to its lower critical solution temperature. To create complex actuation patterns, materials that react differently with respect to a stimulus are required. Here, we introduce functional three-dimensional hetero-microstructures based on pNIPAM. By variation of the local exposure dose in three-dimensional laser lithography, we demonstrate that the material parameters can be altered on demand in a single resist formulation. We explore this concept for sophisticated three-dimensional architectures with large-amplitude and complex responses. The experimental results are consistent with numerical calculations, able to predict the actuation response. Furthermore, a spatially controlled response is achieved by inducing a local temperature increase by two-photon absorption of focused light.
Rights: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
DOI(Published Version): 10.1038/s41467-018-08175-w
PubMed ID: 30651553
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