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Title: Exfiltration and infiltration effect on sewage flow and quality: a case study of Hue, Vietnam
Authors: Watanabe, Ryuichi
Harada, Hidenori
Yasui, Hidenari
Le, Tuan Van
Fujii, Shigeo
Author's alias: 渡部, 龍一
原田, 英典
安井, 英斉
藤井, 滋穂
Keywords: Exfiltration
sewage flow
sewage quality
Southeast Asia
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Journal title: Environmental Technology
Volume: 42
Issue: 11
Start page: 1747
End page: 1757
Abstract: Sewage generated in Southeast Asia is typically characterized by small per-capita flow and low concentration. This study investigated the impacts of exfiltration (leaking-out) and infiltration (leaking-in) on sewage flow and quality in Hue, Vietnam. Sewage flow and quality were continuously monitored at the sewer outlet of a residential drainage area for 68 and 82 days during dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Infiltration was estimated based on the least sewage flow before morning. Lithium tracer tests were conducted to estimate the exfiltration ratio. The results indicated that sewage of the target sewer was weaker than the typical weak-strength sewage even on no-rain days of the dry season. Monitoring of electrical conductivity indicated that rainfall persistently decreased the sewage concentration for a maximum duration of 228 h. The estimated infiltration accounted for 11% and 62% of the total sewage inflow to the sewer during dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The tracer test indicated that exfiltration ratios during the dry and rainy seasons were 65.6% and 24.0%, respectively. As a result of developing the water balance, only 23% of the water supplied to the area reached the sewer outlet in the dry season, while 123% flowed in the rainy season. These results demonstrate that exfiltration decreased the sewage flow in the dry season, while infiltration significantly increased the sewage flow and decreased the sewage concentration in the rainy season. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the impacts of infiltration and exfiltration on sewage in Southeast Asia.
Rights: © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1080/09593330.2019.1680739
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