Downloads: 3

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
33725.pdf231.34 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Title: Japanese Version of the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS): Development and Validation
Authors: Yamamoto, Kazumichi
Ito, Masami
Sakata, Masatsugu
Koizumi, Shiho
Hashisako, Mizuho
Sato, Masaaki
Stoyanov, Stoyan R
Furukawa, Toshi A
Author's alias: 山本, 一道
伊東, 真沙美
坂田, 昌嗣
小泉, 志保
橋迫, 瑞穂
佐藤, 雅昭
古川, 壽亮
Keywords: mobile health apps
mobile application
mobile application rating scale
scale development
mental health
mobile health applications
Issue Date: 14-Apr-2022
Publisher: JMIR Publications Inc.
Journal title: JMIR mHealth and uHealth
Volume: 10
Issue: 4
Thesis number: e33725
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The number of mobile health apps (mHealth apps) continues to rise each year. Widespread use of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS) has allowed objective and multidimensional evaluation of the quality of these apps. However, no Japanese version of MARS has been made available to date. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is (1) to develop a Japanese version of MARS and (2) to assess the translated version's reliability and validity in evaluating mHealth apps. METHODS: To develop the Japanese version of MARS, cross-cultural adaptation was adopted using a universalist approach. A total of 50 mental health apps were evaluated by two independent raters. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were then calculated. Convergent and divergent validity were assessed using multi-trait scaling analysis and concurrent validity. RESULTS: After cross-cultural adaptation, all 23 items from the original MARS were included in the Japanese version. Following translation, back-translation, and review by the author of the original MARS, a Japanese version of MARS was finalized. Internal consistency was acceptable by all subscales of objective and subjective quality with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.78-0.89. Inter-rater reliability was deemed acceptable with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranging from 0.61-0.79 in all subscales, except for "Functionality" with an ICC of 0.40. Convergent/divergent validity and concurrent validity were also considered acceptable. The rate of missing responses was high in several items in the "Information" subscale. CONCLUSIONS: A Japanese version of MARS was developed and shown to be reliable and valid, comparable to the original MARS. This Japanese version of MARS can be used as a standard to evaluate the quality and credibility of mHealth apps.
Description: 医療用モバイルアプリの客観的評価スケールの日本語版開発に成功 --アプリの研究、開発、選択の基準となることを期待--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-06-22.
Rights: ©Kazumichi Yamamoto, Masami Ito, Masatsugu Sakata, Shiho Koizumi, Mizuho Hashisako, Masaaki Sato, Stoyan R Stoyanov, Toshi A Furukawa. Originally published in JMIR mHealth and uHealth (, 14.04.2022.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR mHealth and uHealth, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.
DOI(Published Version): 10.2196/33725
PubMed ID: 35197241
Related Link:
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

Show full item record

Export to RefWorks

Export Format: 

This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License Creative Commons