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Title: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for sputum production in the general population: the Nagahama study
Authors: Morimoto, Chie
Matsumoto, Hisako
Nagasaki, Tadao
Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro
Ishiyama, Yumi
Sunadome, Hironobu  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Oguma, Tsuyoshi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Ito, Isao  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Murase, Kimihiko
Kawaguchi, Takahisa
Tabara, Yasuharu
Niimi, Akio
Muro, Shigeo
Matsuda, Fumihiko
Chin, Kazuo
Hirai, Toyohiro
Author's alias: 森本, 千絵
松本, 久子
長崎, 忠雄
金光, 禎寛
石山, 祐美
砂留, 広伸
小熊, 毅
伊藤, 功朗
村瀬, 公彦
川口, 喬久
田原, 康玄
新実, 彰男
室, 繁郎
松田, 文彦
陳, 和夫
平井, 豊博
Keywords: Sputum production
Gastroesophageal refux disease
Epidemiological study
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal title: Respiratory Research
Volume: 22
Thesis number: 6
Abstract: Background: Chronic sputum production in the general population is historically associated with clinical indices including male sex and smoking history. However, its relationship with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which may prove an underlying factor in sputum production, is unclear. We aimed to clarify factors associated with sputum production in the general population in cross-sectional and longitudinal manners. Methods: In the Nagahama study, a community-based cohort study, 9804 subjects were recruited between 2008 and 2010 (baseline assessment), 8293 of whom were followed from 2013 to 2015 (follow-up assessment). This study contained a self-completed questionnaire which included medical history, assessment of sputum production, and a frequency scale for symptoms of GERD. A Frequency Scale for Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease score of ≥ 8 was defined as GERD. In addition to the frequency of sputum production at each assessment, frequency of persistent sputum production defined as sputum production at both assessments was examined. Results: Frequency of sputum production was 32.0% at baseline and 34.5% at follow-up. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that sputum production at baseline was significantly associated with GERD [odds ratio (OR), 1.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.73-2.13] and post-nasal drip (PND) (OR, 2.40; 95% CI 2.15-2.68), independent of other known factors such as older age, male sex and smoking history. These associations between sputum production and GERD or PND were also observed at follow-up. In longitudinal analysis, 19.4% had persistent sputum production and 12.3% had transient sputum production, i.e., at baseline only. Multivariable analysis for risk of persistence of sputum production revealed that persistent sputum production was associated with GERD and PND, in addition to the known risk factors listed above. The proportion of subjects with GERD at both assessments was highest among subjects with persistent sputum production. Conclusions: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis demonstrated an association in the general population between sputum production and GERD, as well as PND, independent of known risk factors. The presence of GERD should be assessed in patients complaining of sputum production.
Rights: © The Author(s) 2021.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1186/s12931-020-01601-y
PubMed ID: 33407482
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