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Title: Viral Nature of the Aquatic Ecosystems
Authors: Morimoto, Daichi
Tominaga, Kento
Takebe, Hiroaki
Šulčius, Sigitas  KAKEN_name
Yoshida, Takashi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Author's alias: 森本, 大地
富永, 賢人
武部, 紘明
吉田, 天士
Keywords: Virus-host interactions
Biogeochemical cycle
Microbial diversity
Lytic infection
Lysogenic infection
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Springer Nature
Journal title: The Biological Role of a Virus
Start page: 3
End page: 25
Abstract: Viruses infecting microorganisms are ubiquitous and highly abundant in aquatic environments. They considerably affect the dynamics, diversity, and evolution of their host microorganisms. In this review, we discuss the ecological implications of viruses from the perspectives of the biogeochemical cycles, microbial diversity, and virus–host coevolutionary dynamics in aquatic environments. Generally, viruses redirect host metabolism toward reproduction through molecular host–virus interactions characterized by the compositional and stoichiometric changes in intracellular metabolites, which are eventually released into the environment when the infected host cells are lysed, thus also changing the chemical composition of the water. Therefore, the modulation of metabolite biosynthesis and promotion of their recycling are major viral functions. Viruses also maintain microbial community diversity via increased infection and lysis rates of the dominant taxa and genotypes in a frequency-dependent manner, thereby allowing the co-existence of members with various competitive abilities. Finally, viruses can expand their own genotypic diversity and that of the host through complex defense and counter-defense interactions, including loss of host fitness due to the cost of resistance and the possible need for antiviral defense-specific (e.g., intra- vs. extracellular) changes in the hosts genome diversification. Continuous interactions drive the coevolution of hosts and viruses, thereby increasing both the host and viral micro-diversity. Hence, these fundamental functions are viral “raison d’etre” and are essential for the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and its components.
Description: Part of the Advances in Environmental Microbiology book series (AEM, volume 9)
Rights: This manuscript version is subject to Springer Nature’s AM terms of use, but is not the Version of Record and does not reflect post-acceptance improvements, or any corrections. The Version of Record is available online at:
The full-text file will be made open to the public on 12 February 2024 in accordance with publisher's 'Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving'.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version. この論文は出版社版でありません。引用の際には出版社版をご確認ご利用ください。
DOI(Published Version): 10.1007/978-3-030-85395-2_1
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