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|Other Titles:||Old Javanese Esoteric Buddhism as Seen in the Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan|
|Author's alias:||Ishii, Kazuko|
|Abstract:||In 1910,J. Kats published the Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan (SHK), including the text of the Sang Hyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya (SHKM). In 1915,a Japanese scholar, Unrai Ogiwara, pointed out several parallel verses in the SHKM and the Chinese version of the Mahavairocana-sutra. In 1950,Shinten (Shiro) Sakai, also Japanese, identified verses 26 to 42 of the SHKM with verses in the Chinese and Tibetian translations of the Adhyardhasa-tikaprajnaparamita-sutra. I found the SHKM verses 10 & 11 equivalent to verses in the Sarvadurgatipari-sodhana-tantra, and identified verses 12 & 13 with phonetic transliteration in the Chinese translation of Tattvasamgraha. SHKM verse 13 was also found to be equivalent to verses in the Sarvadurgatiparisodhana-tantra and the Sarvavajrodaya; and verses 14 & 15 to verses in the Kriyasamgrahapanjika and verse 19 in the Sarvavajrodaya. According to Advayavajra of the late 10th century, Mahayana Buddhism was divided into two sects, Paramitanaya and Mantranaya. Mantranaya was the esoteric form of Mahayana, which was, the later period, called Mantrayana or vajrayana. I believe that the SHKM was used as a manual for initiating new disciples into the Mantranaya sect in Old Java. After commenting on Mantranaya and giving a short history of Mantranaya Buddhism in Old Java, this paper discusses the SHK, focussing on the attainment of Buddhahood by means of breath control with the germ-syllable 'am-ah'; and it describes the Javanese Mantranaya Mahayana pantheon, in which the Supreme Being, symbolized by Sang Hyang Diwarupa, assumes the body of the Bhatara Hyang Buddha, which then manifests itself as Bhatara Ratnatraya (Sakyamuni, Lokeswara and Bajrapani) and Bhatara Panca Tathagata.|
|Appears in Collections:||Vol.27 No.1|
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