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Title: A female-biased sex ratio reduces the twofold cost of sex.
Other Titles: メスに偏った性比が有性生殖の二倍のコストを削減する
Authors: Kobayashi, Kazuya
Hasegawa, Eisuke
Author's alias: 小林, 和也
長谷川, 英祐
Issue Date: 1-Apr-2016
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal title: Scientific reports
Volume: 6
Thesis number: 23982
Abstract: The evolution of sexual reproduction remains a fascinating enigma in biology. Theoretically, populations of sexual organisms investing half of their resources into producing male offspring that don't contribute to reproduction should grow at only half the rate of their asexual counterparts. This demographic disadvantage due to male production is known as the twofold cost of sex. However, the question of whether this cost is truly twofold for sexual females remains unanswered. The cost of producing males should decrease when the number of male offspring is reduced. Here, we report a case where the cost of males is actually less than twofold. By measuring the numbers of sexual strain coexisting with asexual strain among thrips, our survey revealed that the sexual strain showed female-biased sex ratios and that the relative frequency of sexual strain is negatively correlated with the proportion of males in the sexual strain. Using computer simulations, we confirmed that a female-biased sex ratio evolves in sexual individuals due to the coexistence of asexual individuals. Our results demonstrate that there is a cost of producing males that depends on the number of males. We therefore conclude that sexual reproduction can evolve with far fewer benefits than previously assumed.
Description: オスへの投資がコストになっていることを実証 -さまざまな生物で性の進化・維持メカニズム解明に期待-. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2016-04-05.
Rights: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/210024
DOI(Published Version): 10.1038/srep23982
PubMed ID: 27035400
Related Link: http://www.kyoto-u.ac.jp/ja/research/research_results/2015/160401_2.html
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