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Title: 戦前期の小学校職業指導における「教育的眼差し」の意味・機能--適職・就職先決定プロセスに注目して
Other Titles: The meaning and the function of the "educational view" in the vocational guidance of primary schools in the prewar period: focusing on the process of the selection of students' suitable occupations and places of employment
Authors: 石岡, 学  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Author's alias: ISHIOKA, Manabu
Issue Date: 20-Dec-2009
Publisher: 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科
Journal title: 人間・環境学
Volume: 18
Start page: 1
End page: 12
Abstract: 本研究の目的は, 戦前期の小学校における職業指導を対象とし, 適職決定・就職先決定における論理・実態の分析を通して, そこにいかなる教育的眼差しがあったのか, またその教育的眼差しにはいかなる意味・機能があったのかを明らかにすることである. これは, 移行問題が「教育問題」化していく過程で学校がいかなる主体的役割を果たしたのかを解明するうえで, きわめて重要な課題である.第1章では, 上記の研究課題の背景・意義について述べた. 第2章では, 適職決定のプロセスにおける教育的眼差しとその機能について明らかにした. 学校において主流となったのは「消極的指導」というあり方であった. その背景としては, 求人市場の状況や適性検査への疑義に加え, 児童の「可塑性」「弾力性」を重視する「教育的観点」があった.こうした「消極的指導」においては児童の「自発性」や「自己省察」が重視されていた. その理由としては, 新教育的主張との連続性に加え, 指導者側の責任回避という側面もあった. 第3章では, 就職先決定のプロセスにおける教育的眼差しとその機能を解明した. 小学校が自ら求人開拓・就職斡旋を行うことは原則からの逸脱であり, 「職業精神の涵養」を重視する立場の小学校からは批判された. しかし, 職業紹介所の弱体性などの現実的状況ゆえ, それは全否定されえないものであった. このような小学校における求人開拓・就職斡旋という営為は, 保護者からの信頼に応えるためなどという理由づけもあって, 職業紹介所のような「事務的な処理」とは異なる「教育の仕事」として積極的に肯定されてもいた.第4章では, 本研究で明らかとなった知見をまとめ, 総合考察を行った.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning and the function of the educational view in the decision of suitable occupations and places of employment for students, focusing on the vocational guidance of primary schools in the prewar period. This is very significant to examine what kind of role schools played in the process of regarding transition as a problem of education. Section 1 explains the background and the significance of this study. Section 2 clarifies the educational view and its function in the process of the selection of suitable occupations for students. The results are as follows : "Negative guidance" became the mainstream in the way of guidance of primary schools. The dominance of negative guidance was according to the situation of the job market, the doubts about vocational aptitude tests and "educational view" that regards the trainability and the flexibility of students as important. "Initiative" and "reflection on one's self" by students were also regarded as important in the "negative guidance". In the background, there were not only the continuity to the assertion of "Shin-Kyoiku (New Education)" but also the purpose to evade guides' responsibilities. Section 3 clarifies the educational view and its function in the process of the selection of places of employment for students. Teachers who made much of the "cultivation of spirits of enterprise" were critical of helping students to find jobs by schools, because it was the departure from the principle. However, it couldn't be entirely denied due to the imperfect system of the employment agencies. Teachers who had helped students to find jobs thought it positive. The logic was that they had to come up to the expectations of students' parents, and also that it was the "duty of education" which was different from the "businesslike management" as the employment agencies. Section 4 is a summary and discussion.
Rights: ©2009 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科
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