Access count of this item: 117
|Other Titles:||Morphological investigation of parathyroid gland of mice administered salts and steroid hormones|
|Author's alias:||Nakagawa, Kiyohide|
Parathyroid Glands/drug effects/pathology
|Abstract:||This report deals with morphological investigation of the parathyroid gland of mice at abnormal salt and steroid hormone environments produced by administration of various salts and steroid hormones. The results are summarized as follows. 1) Under the hypercalcemic circumstances induced by administration of calcium chloride, parathyroid hormone or calcium lactate, the parathyroid gland showed generalized hypoplasia, atrophy and decrease of the clear cells, increase of dark cells, atrophy of the Golgi apparatus and complete absence of mitosis. 2) Under the hyperphosphatemic circumstance induced by administration of dibasic sodium phosphate or dibasic potassium phosphate or by renal incineration, the parathyroid gland showed marked generalized hyperplasia, hypertrophy and increase of the clear cells and their nuclei, decrease of the dark cells, hypertrophy of the Golgi apparatus and presence of many mitotic figures. 3) With administration of potassium chloride or sodium chloride, hyperplasia of the tissue and hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the clear cells were observed with the former, while these changes were not so distinct with the latter. 4) The influence to the parathyroid gland was more evident with diffusible inorganic calcium than with organic calcium. 5) In the parathyroid gland of mice, very little lipid could be demonstrated, PAS positive granula and alkaline phosphatase activity were weakly shown and only small amount of RNA was recognized. 6) On the basis of the results described in 1) and 2), generalized tissue hyperplasia, especially hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the clear cells and decrease of the dark cells represent hyper parathyroid state, while atrophy and decrease of the clear cells and increase of the dark cells report hyper parathyroid state. The acidophilic cells are supposed to bave 1ess relation to calcium and phosphorus metabolism of the parathyroid gland. 7) The proliferation of the parathyroid gland was found to be accomplished by hyperplasia of the subcapsular fibroblastoid cells developing into dark cells followed by turning into clear cells after their mitosis or by decrease of nuclear chromatin of dark cells shifting into clear cells. In hyper functioning state, the clear cells proliferated with mitosis, while' in hypo functioning state a reverse shifting from clear cells to dark cells was also demonstrated. 8) Hypo physectomy: Following hypophysectomy, the parathyroid gland showed increase in number of the dark cells and marked atrophy of the tissue and cell nuclei despite less decrease in number of the clear cells. These alterations suggested development of hypoparathyroidism. 9) Administration of ovarian follicle hormones: Following administration of a-estradiol,. hexestrol or acrylonitril-derivatives atrophy of tissue, decrease of the clear cells and atophyof nuclei, representing probable hypoparathyroid state, were observed with the former two' hormones. With acrylonitril derivatives, hyperplasia of the tissue and nuclei and marked increase of clear cells were observed, despite marked weightloss, suggesting probable develop-ment of hyperparathyroid state. 10) Administration of male sexual hormones: Following administration of methylandro-, stendiol, methyltestosterone or testosteron propionate generally the parathyroid tissue showed, hyperfunctioning histological pictures. This effect was especially intense with methylandro-, stendiol followed by in the order of methyltestosterone and testosterone propionate. 11) Administration of corpus lutein hormone: Following administration of corpus lutein hormone the parathyroid gland showed marked hyperfunctioning pictures which was next to that following methylandrostenediol. 12) Administration of adrenocortical hormones: Following administration of cortisone, despite marked weightloss, the parathyroid gland demonstrated hyper unctioning histological pictures with tissue hyperplasia and proliferation and hypertrophy of the clear cells. Following administration of DOCA the histological pictures were that in hypofunctioning state although, its was only slight in degree. 13) Gonadectomy: Following gonadectomy the parathyroid gland showed hyper unctioning state with hyperplasia of the tissue. 14) Hypophysectomy combined with administration of steroid hormone or gonadectomy : Hypoparathyroid state following hypophysectomy, which was described in 8), was further intensified by combination of administration of estradiol, hexestrol or DOCA. However, development of the post-hypophysectomy hypoparathyroidiom was slightly prevented by combination of gonadectomy, or administration of acrylonitril derivatives, methylandrostandiol, cortisone or progesterone. The results suggest that these steroid hormones have direct effect to the parathyroid gland without through the pituitary gland. The experimental results clearly demonstrated that parathyroid function is not only intensively influenced by blood calcium and phosphorus levels and kidney functions, but also is closedly related to other endocrine organs such as pituitary, ad rena Is and gonadal glands. It is supposed that the pituitary gland, adrenal cortex (cortisone) and testicle have accelerating actions upon the parathyroid gland, while the adrenal cortex (DOCA) and ovary have inhibiting works.|
|Appears in Collections:||Vol.13 No.12|
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