|Other Titles:||On the regulations concerning the use of 'Phags-pa letters in Yuan administrative documents|
|Author's alias:||Nakajima, Gakusho|
|Abstract:||In this paper, the author re-examines regulations on the use of 'Phags-pa letters in the official document system in the Yuan period, by analyzing basic legal sources such as Yuandianzhang 元典章 and original administrative documents found at Qaraqota. When 'Phags-pa letters were promulgated by Khubilai Khan in 1269, their use was limited to Imperial edicts issued by the Khan and imperial clans by the Mongolian language. But through the later reign of Khubilai, the use of 'Phagspa letters was gradually extended to various official documents such as the Imperial edicts drafted by classical Chinese, letters of appointments for official posts, memorials for congratulations in the court, licenses for the use of the courier system and so on. In particular, it was important that the subjects (shimu 事目) written in the Mongolian language transcribed using 'Phags-pa letters had to be added to all Chinese document issued by the central offices, and this obligation was later extended to those issued by the local Route (in 路) governments. Bichighchi (yishi 譯史), translator of the Mongolian language, were assigned both in the central and the Route governments, took charge of translation and composition of the Mongolian documents. Though the use of 'Phags-pa letters in the official document system was not readily penetrated at first, by the early fourteenth century, the use of it seemed to have gradually spread to the central and local document system. Some stone inscriptions in the mid and late Yuan period reveals that the Mongolian subjects transcribed by 'Phags-pa letters were added to the Chinese official documents. In particular, official documents of the Yijinai 亦集乃 Route excavated at Qaraqota reveal that 'Phags-pa letters were used for various purposes in the local document system in the mid and late Yuan period. For example, in a warrant (diewen 牒文) written in Chinese issued by the Yijinai Route, there is an abstract written in Mongolian and transcribed using 'Phags-pa letters, as well as that written in Chinese. Furthermore, several instructions (zhafu 箚付) issued by the Gansu Branch Secretariat (Gansu xingsheng 甘蕭行省) to the Yijinai Route written in Chinese have two abstracts, one written in Mongolian transcribed using 'Phags-pa letters and one in Persian transcribed using Arabic letters. In general, although the range of the use of 'Phags-pa letters in the official document system was relatively limited, it gradually came to actual use in routine operation of official document system in the central and local government.|
|Appears in Collections:||第84册|
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