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|Other Titles:||Two Types of Bureaucracy of Xi Xia: How Bureaucrats were Appointed in the Latter Half of the 12th Century|
|Author's alias:||SATO, Takayasu|
|Abstract:||In this study I use written sources in the Tangut language and Chinese to investigate how the bureaucrats of the Xi Xia kingdom were appointed in the latter half of the 12th century. As a result of this examination, I have made clear that there were two, differing types of bureaucrats at this time. The first type was composed of officials of the civilian bureaucracy whom had been educated in institutions designed to develop civilian bureaucrats; the second type was made up of military bureaucrats who served on the basis of attaining an inherited post or on the recommendation of a clan chieftain. And I also made clear that among these bureaucrats was a group who were appointed as close associates of the emperor. Most of the military bureaucrats were chosen from the Tangut people of various clans other than that of the emperor. They were closely associated with the emperor and served as residential guards and did tasks in the palace and thereafter advanced as bureaucrats in various government offices. The method of appointment for military officials was similar to the keshik system of the Mongol empire. On the other hand, the majority of the civilian bureaucracy was made up of Han people who had submitted to the Tangut. The existence of two methods of bureaucratic appointments not only united the various Tangut clans in the Tangut state that was constructed upon the land of the conquered Han people, one can also discern an effort of the regime to maintain the government system by having the conquered Han people participate in the government. The existence of this type of bureaucratic appointment system demonstrates one of the characteristics of the central Eurasian type of state, such as Xi Xia that enrolled various peoples into a regime that was maintained for over one hundred after its founding and lasted until the latter half of the 12th century.|
|Appears in Collections:||66巻3号|
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