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Title: Application of the modified feed formulation to optimize economic and environmental criteria in beef cattle fattening systems with food by-products
Authors: Oishi, Kazato  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Kumagai, Hajime  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Hirooka, Hiroyuki  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Author's alias: 大石, 風人
Keywords: Beef cattle
Feed formulation
Food by-products
Nitrogen and phosphorus penalties
Issue Date: Apr-2011
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Journal title: Animal Feed Science and Technology
Volume: 165
Issue: 1-2
Start page: 38
End page: 50
Abstract: A simplified ration optimization method was applied to a beef cattle fattening system to evaluate the utilization of food by-products under various situations. The method was extended to reduce feed costs (i.e., economic factors) and nitrogen and phosphorus excretions (i.e., environmental factors) by introducing penalty coefficients of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in each ingredient of the diet in the objective function in traditional linear programming. Six regional food by-products, five commercial concentrates and two roughages were used as ingredients of the fermented total mixed ration. Constraints for the feed formulation were based mainly on nutrient requirements in the Japanese Feeding Standard for Beef Cattle. The replacement price (or acquisition cost) of food by-products was defined as the maximum price of food by-products when the feed cost with the use of food by-products was below the cost with the use of conventional concentrates. The results showed that although the replacement prices were not greatly affected by the penalty levels, they were associated with the changes in the substitution rate of food by-products for concentrates and the price of concentrates. The replacement prices were about 16 (yen/kg, as-fed basis) against the present price level of concentrates, when food by-products were substituted for a half of concentrates. Feed compositions were altered and nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were decreased by the changes of penalties, in spite of the small change in the replacement price of food by-products. Both nitrogen and phosphorus penalties greatly reduced the nitrogen and phosphorus excretions, indicating that nitrogen and phosphorus penalty coefficients should be introduced together in the objective function in order to reduce both excretions efficiently.
Rights: © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version. この論文は出版社版でありません。引用の際には出版社版をご確認ご利用ください。
DOI(Published Version): 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.02.015
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