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|Other Titles:||The Tang Pasturage Overseer System and the Pasturage of the Sogdians in Tang|
|Author's alias:||YAMSHITA, Shoji|
|Abstract:||From the end of the Northern Dynasties to the initial stages of the Tang many Sogdians moved into China, formed settlements, and became active. Among these groups of Sogdians in China those who displayed the greatest power were the An clan 安氏 of Wuwei 武威 and Shi clan 史氏 of Guyuan 固原. The An of Wuwei who had led Sogdian warriors during late-Sui-early-Tang period to topple the Li Gui 李軌 regime commended the Hexi region to the Tang shortly after the founding of the dynasty. The Shi clan of Guyuan, on the other hand, had been assigned as the officials in charge of the military command of all of Yuanzhou in the late Sui, but following the establishment of the Tang dynasty pledged their allegiance and cooperated in the overthrow of the Xue Ju 薛擧 regime in Longxi. Both groups had evolved into a type of armed body that assisted the Tang militarily in the unification of China. There is one particular characteristic shared by the two groups. That is the fact that they were often appointed to the office of pasturage 牧馬官, that is to say as officials concerned with overseeing the management and breeding of horse for military use in the Tang dynasty. As regards the An clan of Wuwei, one An Yuanshou 安元壽 was appointed to the post of Pasture Master of Xiazhou 夏州群牧使 it. The post of Pasture Master of Xiazhou seldom appears in historical records, but based on my analysis, it is clear that it was the supreme official charged with the breeding of war horses at the time. Furthermore, when Tang established a new system for the breeding of war horses in Hexi at the beginning of the 8th century, the director was chosen form the An clan of Wuwei. On the other hand, after the Tang established the system for breeding war horses known as the pasturage overseer system 監牧制 during the Zhenguan era, members of the Shi clan of Guyuan successively occupied the top post in charge of government pastures where war horses were actually bred. They consistently supported the establishment and spread of the Pasturage Overseer system. If one explores the background to the appointment of members of both these groups of Sogdians to the posts in the office of pasturage, the fact becomes clear that both groups were active in the private breeding of war horses prior to the establishment of the Tang dynasty. This reality, that the Sogdians, who have heretofore been seen as merchants, can be understood as having formed armed bodies in the past should be recognized. In other words, the occupation of breeding and trading war horses, would have necessarily deepened their involvement with military matters and led them to become militarized.|
|Appears in Collections:||66巻4号|
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