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|Title:||廣東における商人團體の再編について : 廣州市商會を中心として|
|Other Titles:||On the Reorganization of Commercial Associations of Guangdong : Focusing On The Guangzhou Municipal Chamber Of Commerce|
広東における商人団体の再編について : 広州市商会を中心として
|Author's alias:||Chen, Laixing|
|Abstract:||The primary goals of this study are to trace the creation and development of the commercial associations of Guangzhou 廣州 and clarify their relationship to the Guomindang and the Nationalist government. The Guangzhou General Chamber of Commerce 廣州總商會 (1905), an outgrowth of the Seventy-two Guilds 七十二行, the Guangzhou City Chamber of Commerce 廣州市市商會 (1924), composed of small and medium-sized business, and the Guomindang associated Guangzhou Merchants Association 廣州市商民協會 (1925), the first to be established on a nationwide basis, were dissolved after having existed together for five years, and merged into the Guangzhou Municipal Chamber of Commerce 廣州市商會 (1931). The merger had been made possible by the promulgation of the new Chamber of Commerce Law 商會法 in August 1929. The law reflected the principle of "ruling the nation through the party" 以黨治國, eliminating anti-revolutionary merchants, and closing off the path for merchants to participate in merchant associations as individuals. Analyzing the composition of the Guangzhou Municipal Chamber of Commerce and the reports of its revenues, one recognizes the continuity with the General Chamber of Commerce in its final stage and grasps the strengthening of the representation by units of the Trade Associations 同業公會. Thus, relations with the government and various social groups grew closer becoming indivisible. Simultaneously, with the deliberate creation of the new image of merchants as "revolutionary" or "progressive, " the concrete policy of the party and nation to promote the production and sale of domestic products was promoted and disseminated through the Municipal Chamber of Commerce. A secondary goal of this study is to portray the regional flavor of the merchant associations of southeastern China, including Hong Kong and Macau by focusing on the Guangzhou Municipal Chamber of Commerce. The Amoy General Chamber of Commerce 厦門總商會 and the Swatou General Chamber of Commerce 汕頭總商會 were outgrowths of the Baoshangju 保商局, which administered the entry and exit of immigrants and migrants. In addition, many general chambers of commerce at home and abroad exercised the functions of issuing personal identification papers and passports. Furthermore, the general chambers of commerce played a role as nexus in the vital network involved in the sending remittances and donations. The Guomindang had attempted to mobilize the merchants in the name of the revolution in the late 1920s, but the essence of the merchant movement only became apparent in the activities of the chambers of commerce in the 1930s with the dawning of realization of near-fatal crisis facing the nation. The Guangzhou Municipal Chamber of Commerce earnestly accepted the various calls issued by the Overseas Chinese General Chamber of Commerce 中華總商會 to rescue the nation.|
|Appears in Collections:||61巻2号|
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