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|Other Titles:||The Activities of the Shanren 山人 in the Wanli Era of the Ming|
|Author's alias:||Kin, Bunkyo|
|Abstract:||The serious social problem posed by the literati known as shanren 山人 who sold their services in the Wanli era of the late Ming had already come to the attention of many their contemporaries, and a number of studies regarding them have previously been conducted. Nevertheless, a good deal of the details of the specific activities of the shanren remains obscure. This study seeks to clarify the picture of the activities of the shanren of the period by using the "Shanren" 山人 section in the twenty-third fascicle of the Wanli yehuobian 萬暦野獲編 -of Shen Defu 沈德符 and also by carefully examining the description of the shanren in the "Shenzong shilu" "神宗實錄" portion of the Ming shilu 明實錄. Behind the ostensible prosperity of the Wanli era, contradictions in the military and economic situation in outlying regions deepened, while at the center incidents of anonymous letters exposing misconduct, which grew out of the confrontation of the emperor and his courtiers over the crown prince, frequently occurred and factional fighting intensified. These domestic problems and foreign troubles brought an end to the Ming dynasty, and the activities of the shanren in dealing with the economic problems of the outlying regions, which were at the core of both domestic and foreign problems, and their profound involvement with both factions involved the letter incidents at the center can be gleaned from a reading of the "Shenzong shilu." Furthermore, it can be presumed that the shanren were involved in the nexus of the domestic and foreign problems. The first note of the shanren appeared in Ming shilu record for the year Wanli 12. This is not to suggest that the shanren had not existed previously, but that their activities only became a serious political and social issue after the Wanli era. In this sense, it can be said that the activities of the shanren were a special phenomenon of the Wanli era. Heretofore, most evaluations of the shanren have been negative, but, in order to grasp the society and the politics of the age, it is necessary to analyze the activities of the shanren objectively. To this end, it is indispensable that the historical materials left by the shanren themselves be examined, and such is the object of a forthcoming study by this author.|
|Appears in Collections:||61巻2号|
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