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Title: ヌルハチ時代のヒヤ制 : 淸初侍衞考序説
Other Titles: The Hiya System in the Reign of Nurhči : An Introduction to a Research of the Imperial Guard in the Early Manchu-Qing Empire
ヌルハチ時代のヒヤ制 : 清初侍衛考序説
Authors: 杉山, 清彦  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: Sugiyama, Kiyohiko
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2003
Publisher: 東洋史研究會
Journal title: 東洋史研究
Volume: 62
Issue: 1
Start page: 97
End page: 136
Abstract: The Manchu Khanate (manju gurun), establised Nurhaci or Emperor Taizu, was organized on the system of the Eight Banners (jakun gusa), which was continued to serve as the structure of the ruling elite of Qing 清 Empire after conquest of China. The structure of the Eight Banners is generally seen as either a pyramid-shaped hierarchy or a federation of banner princes (beile), including the khan, or emperor. However, if viewed from the perspective of the vicinity of the rulers, particularly if observing the formation of the state, the presence of a group of attendants or bodyguards comes into focus. The core of these was the imperial guard, known as hiya, and later shiwei 侍衛. Firstly, I have considered the process of the formation of the hiya system. The first period is of small and mid-sized chieftain prior to 1587. In this period the duties of groups of subjects were not yet diversified, therefore many of attendants were household servant, and the word hiya was not yet seen. The second period was that of the foundation of the first capital Fe Ala, after 1587, when accompanying the extension of state power, subjects of the chieftain class were assigned to serve as personal guards, and the guardsmen began to be trained within the palace. The third period was that of the annexation of Hada and the transfer of the capital to Hetu Ala in which the existence of the appellation hiya can be confirmed, and during which the hiya, system was firmly established. Secondly, I have considered their duties and special character. The chief duties of the hiya were 1) serve as escorts to the khan, 2) guard the palace on an everyday bases, and 3) various services as personal associates of the khan. The duties of the later siwei were thus inherent in the hiya of the age of Nurhaci. The essence of the hiya was in it being a group of personal attendants on the monarch. In addition to the basic mission of guarding the monarch, they were referred to as the personal associates of the monarch. Their most important function resided in the placement of all former chieftains and their offspring as subjects in the hierarchy in which Nurhaci was father and master. In this sense, the hiya was an organization that reared the present and future talent pool and that also had an aspect of hostage and re-educating personnel along with rewards and special treatment. The hiya was in this relationship also the comrade (gucu) of the master. Thirdly, I have considered the origin of the system. The special character of the hiya system is extremely similar to that of the kesig system of the Mongol Empire. Their customary duties, which resembled those of the kesig, or nokur-like system, could be carried on as a vestige of the Mongol period. One can image a process of adoption in which, on the basis of this vestigial system, the position and appellation hiya as the aides to the Mongol chieftains was introduced from the Mongol tribes in the second half of the 16th century. Judging from the above, it may be concluded that the hiya was an personnel organization corresponding to the kesig of the Mongol Empire, functioned as the core of centripetal structure under the Eight Banners. The initial period of the Manchu Khanate or Qing Empire maintained the Central Eurasian principle of national organization represented by the Mongol Empire, and the hiya system together with the gucu relationship formed its core. As regards the hiya and other organizations of personal associates of the Manchu rulers, it should be recognized that it had much more in common with the kesig of the Mongol Empire, the kapikulu of the Ottoman Empire, and the gholam of the Safavid Dynasty rather than those of Ming China.
DOI: 10.14989/155509
Appears in Collections:62巻1号

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