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Title: 市場経済化以後のカンボジア : 経済活動の多面的な展開をめぐって
Other Titles: Cambodia after the Marketization of Its Economy : An Examination of Three Facets of Economic Development
Authors: 小林, 知  KAKEN_name
ンガウ, ペンホイ  KAKEN_name
柴沼, 晃  KAKEN_name
功能, 聡子  KAKEN_name
矢倉, 研二郎  KAKEN_name
山田, 裕史  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: Kobayashi, Satoru
Ngov, Penghuy
Shibanuma, Akira
Kono, Satoko
Yagura, Kenjiro
Yamada, Hiroshi
Issue Date: Mar-2011
Publisher: 京都大学東南アジア研究所
Journal title: Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
Volume: 113
Start page: 1
End page: 84
Abstract: This working paper is the product of a seminar entitled "Cambodian economy and society after the marketization its economy: an examination of three facets of economic development" which was held at the Center for Southeast Asian Studies (CSEAS), Kyoto University, in March 2010. Cambodia is well known as a country that experienced extreme social disruption in the 1970s, especially during the Pol Pot period of 1975-79. After the international isolation of the 1980s, the Cambodian government turned its policy toward the marketization of its economy in the 1989 constitution. With the national elections and birth of the new state in 1993, the country accelerated the pace of market integration. The seminar examined the various aspects of economic development of the country in recent years by inviting three researchers coming from different standpoints and interests. After an introductory note on the workshop's background (Dr. Kobayashi Satoru), this publication consists of five chapters written by the three speakers and two commentators in the seminar. Chapter 1 (Dr. Ngov Penghuy) examines the directions of the government's structural reform implemented after the national election in 1993, pointing out that the Cambodian government envisioned large-scale foreign capital as a driver of economic development from the outset of the marketization process. The chapter also describes the process of marketization from a macroeconomic perspective, paying special attention to the expansion of garment industry and its role in driving economic growth since the middle of the 1990s. Chapter 2 (Mr. Shibanuma Akira) examines the reality of more autonomous economic development in the country. Using a theory of development economics that focuses on the growth of domestic entrepreneurs, the author analyses the recent increase of small-scale garment factories run by families with some insights from preliminary research in Phnom Penh. The discussion is noteworthy because it examines the possibility of the spontaneous growth of Cambodian economy in an era of marketization. Chapter 3 (Ms. Kono Satoko) offers readers the third perspective on economic development: that is, social investment from foreign private companies into the local Cambodian businesses. According to the author, social investment aims for not only economic profits but also the realization of social goods such as poverty reduction and empowerment of woman. This perspective is quite important in Cambodia because it will facilitate more independent economic development, not relying on directly on the development aid schemes that dominate the economic development of donors and NGOs. Finally, the author describes her own experience in establishing a social investment company in Japan to respond to the needs of Cambodian social entrepreneur. Chapters 4 and 5 consist of the commentary following the previous three topics. Firstly, in Chapter 4, Dr. Yagura Kenjiro reviews the current situation of the Cambodian economy and concludes that the introduction of foreign capital is a practical policy approach to the development of Cambodian economy. At the same time, however, he emphasizes the need to promote a diversified manufacturing industry and suggests the importance of preparing the institutional environment for such entrepreneurs by, for example, reforming the domestic financing system. Finally, Chapter 5 (Mr. Yamada Hiroshi) adds analysis of political initiatives in the economic development of Cambodia. After reviewing the political process in the country after 1993 and studying the policy platform of the ii Cambodian People's Party (CPP) in 2003 and 2008, the author concludes that the CPP turned its attention from the stabilization of political rule at the national level towards national economic development in the beginning of the 2000s. The author also analyzes the characteristics of economic policy of the CPP in recent years and points out that the party is consciously drawing private business groups into party politics through such actions as nominating key businessperson to run for seats in the Senate. In other words, the CPP is currently seeking a way of directing and controlling economic development without showing the direct extent of its political control on the processes. According to the author, the party is steadily consolidating its influence and control of administrative procedures and domestic business groups, taking care to not oppose global standards associated with progress creating the institutions for democratic governance and a market economy.
Rights: © 2011 京都大学東南アジア研究所
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