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Title: Nomadic Pastoralists Adapting to the Challenge of Sedentarization in Arid Area of East Africa
Authors: Sun, Xiaogang
Author's alias: 孫, 暁剛
Keywords: Sedentarization
livestock management
new economic opportunity
Issue Date: Mar-2009
Publisher: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University
Journal title: Kyoto Working Papers on Area Studies: G-COE Series
Volume: 35
Start page: 1
End page: 19
Abstract: Sedentarization has become one of the biggest transformations to occur among nomadic pastoralists of East Africa in the 20th century. Although many researches have been done on the socio-economic changes in pastoral societies under the influence of sedentarization, few have focused on livestock production and management, which remain the centre of pastoral subsistence. Based on a case study of the Rendille pastoralists of Kenya, this paper examines how nomadic pastoralists have challenged sedentarization without reducing the high mobility of livestock herding and livestock based economy. Data collected during 23 months of fieldwork were analyzed and compared with previous studies from ecological and anthropological perspectives. Under the influence of development projects and drought relief efforts in the past three to four decades, most of Rendille's settlements moved into the vicinities of the new towns. However, by maintaining their communal use of rangeland and water resources, reorganizing the dual residential system of settlement and herding camps, continuing high mobility of livestock at herding camps, and continuing the age system and distribution of labour in herding tasks, the Rendille have successfully maintained high mobility in their livestock herding practices. On the other hand, challenging new opportunities, such as developing new wells near permanent settlements and passing animals through settlements for water, have provided people living in the settlements with greater access to livestock products and improved the conditions for raising cattle. Furthermore, in recent years, cattle sales have allowed pastoralists to engage in the growing cash economy. Results from longitudinal and comparative studies show that nomadic pastoralists not only have the ability to remain livestock herding, but also are capable of responding to profitable opportunities brought from outside.
Rights: © 2009 Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University
Appears in Collections:GCOEワーキングペーパー

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