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|Other Titles:||Controlling Eastern Anatolia during the Reign of Suleyman I: The Development of the Timār System in the Malatya Region|
|Author's alias:||MISAWA, Nobuo|
|Abstract:||Regional administration during the pre-modern Ottoman Empire was organized around a system of awards of land for military service that was known as the timar system. The Ottoman Empire was built into a vast empire during the reign of Sultan Suleyman I in the mid 16th century. It was extremely important for the empire to control Eastern Anatolia, which had recently come under its sway. Reward of land for military service in the original form of the timar system played an important role in this control. I examine and document the process of the control by the Ottoman Empire over Eastern Anatolia using the case of the Malatya region by analyzing the operation of the timar system in Malatya district (=kaza), the smallest administrative unit of the empire. At this time the Ottoman Empire deferred to those associated with the Dulkadir Beligi, the former rulers of the Malatya region, and operated the malikanedivanisystem, which was a modified version of the timar system. The Ottoman Empire thereafter gradually reevaluated the system, attempting to switch to the implementation the original timar system. However, the Ottoman Empire did not institute a uniform policy of re-organization and elimination at that time. In the course of re-evaluating the implementation of the malikane-divanisystem, the Ottoman Empire implemented various policies on the district level, having grasped the state of each district in the region on the local level. Moreover, the Ottoman Empire also grasped the situation of the beneficiaries of the existing system, and particularly the influential beneficiaries, and in accord with their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, at times eliminated or canceled and at times expanded various policies, promoting a general policy that gradually proceeded in altering the system through re-organization and elimination of existing elements. In short, the Ottoman Empire applied a moderate policy based on regular analysis and collection of information on local communities and human circumstances down to the level of the very lowest administrative level of district. In this manner, the switch to the orthodox "timar system, " i.e., the Ottoman Empire's traditional policy of land awards for military service, in the central core region, was successfully implemented by the gradual shift in the land policy. Due to the series of policies described above, the Ottoman Empire was able to control the Malatya region and integrate it into the system of state rule.|
|Appears in Collections:||68巻4号|
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