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|Other Titles:||Residents and Rulers of Darband in the 18th Century|
|Author's alias:||SHINOZAKI, Shinya|
|Abstract:||The region of the South Caucasus in the 18th century was surrounded, by Iran on the south, by Russia on the north, and by the Ottoman Empire on the west, and became a region of conflict for these three great powers. This was due to the collapse of the Safavid dynasty in Iran at the start of the 18th century. A period of chaos resulting from frequent changes in ruling regimes continued thereafter. Moreover, in the latter half of the 18th century many independent, local rulers emerged in areas that were not under the rule of any of the central governments and these local rulers often fought among themselves. Although the South Caucasus had reached the nadir of turmoil and chaos in the latter half of the 18th century, the nearby Darband area had attained state of stability and order. Darband, a city situated on the northern edge of the South Caucasus, was a vital location for land transport that linked the northern and southern regions of the Caucasus. In this article, I examine how social order was built up and maintained in Darband. In considering this problem, I focus on two groups, the residents of Darband and the Lezgins. The residents of Darband maintained a strong influence on their rulers throughout the 18th century. The residents of Darband threw off and banished their ruler in 1172A.H. (1758-59A.D.), and invited Fath 'Ali Xan to become their new ruler. He won the overwhelming support of the residents and carried out his rule for about 30 years. Meanwhile, the Lezgins lived in the mountainous region near Darband. They were known as marauders who would not submit to any ruler and as a threat to the people of Darband. On the other hand, the Lezgins were also mercenaries, and many participated in the military expeditions that were frequently conducted by Fath 'Ali Xan during his reign. Fath 'Ali Xan diverted the energy that the Lezgins devoted to marauding against locals into expeditions against distant outsiders. The revenue source for the support of the Lezgins came from the taxes of the subjected regions including Darband. By incorporating the Lezgins into his own army, Fath 'Ali Xan was both able to establish his superiority over other regional forces and stabilize the lives of the Lezgins. He was also able to win the support of the residents of Darband. The combined result was that he was able to bring about a stable social order in Darband and its environs.|
|Appears in Collections:||68巻4号|
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