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Title: Towards expressive musical robots: A cross-modal framework for emotional gesture, voice and music
Authors: Lim, Angelica
Ogata, Tetsuya
Okuno, Hiroshi G.
Author's alias: 奥乃, 博
Keywords: affective computing
entertainment robots
Issue Date: 17-Jan-2012
Publisher: SpringerOpen
Journal title: EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing
Volume: 2012
Thesis number: 3
Abstract: It has been long speculated that expression of emotions from different modalities have the same underlying 'code', whether it be a dance step, musical phrase, or tone of voice. This is the first attempt to implement this theory across three modalities, inspired by the polyvalence and repeatability of robotics. We propose a unifying framework to generate emotions across voice, gesture, and music, by representing emotional states as a 4-parameter tuple of speed, intensity, regularity, and extent (SIRE). Our results show that a simple 4-tuple can capture four emotions recognizable at greater than chance across gesture and voice, and at least two emotions across all three modalities. An application for multi-modal, expressive music robots is discussed.
Rights: © 2012 Lim et al; licensee Springer.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1186/1687-4722-2012-3
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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