|Other Titles:||The Influence of the Retired Emperor during the Reign of Emperor Xiaozong of the Southern Song and the Politics of the Emperor's Close Associates|
|Author's alias:||KOBAYASHI, Akira|
|Abstract:||There have coexisted two judgments in regard to the politics of Emperor Xiaozong, the second emperor of the Southern Song: one is that he relied on military officials who were his close associates bringing about a concentration power around the emperor, and the other is that the emperor could not freely exercise political power for 25 years due to the pressure exerted by the retired emperor Gaozong. This article synthesizes evaluations of these disparate theories in an effort to approach the reality of the regime of Emperor Xiaozong. Xiaozong was from the start a supporter of the idea of taking a hard line against the Jin, and after his accession to the throne in the 6th month of 1162, he actively promoted the hardliner Zhang Jun 張浚 and attempted to pursue war against the Jin. However, his intention was often blocked through the opposition of Chen Kangbo 陳康伯 and Shi Hao 史浩 who had been promoted as grand councilors on the basis of the desire of the Retired Emperor Gaozong for peace. Xiaozong initiated war with Jin with an edict that did not go through the councilors, and the army was defeated at Fuli, but the very fact that Xiaozong's own temporary transfer to front line was blocked due to the opposition of Shi Hao, who reflected the opinion of Retired Emperor Gaozong, can be seen as having a measure of significance. Due to the defeat at Fuli 符離, the dispute at the center of the Southern Song government between the peace advocate Tang Situi 湯思退 and the hardliner Zhang Jun grew fiercer. Despite Xiaozong's support for Zhang Jun, Tang Situi was promoted above him to the more powerful position of Vice Director of the Left (Zuo Pushe) in the 12th month of 1163, again reflecting the wishes of Retired Emperor Gaozong, and peace between Song and Jin was pursued. After the fall of Tang Situi, Qian Duanli 錢端禮 also promoted peace with Jin, and it appears that the selection of Qian also reflected the wishes of the Retired Emperor Gaozong. Due to the Retired Emperor Gaozong's involvement in the selection of state councilors 宰執, he was able to have his will reflected in political decision-making. In contrast to Xiaozong's desire for a hard-line policy toward the Jin, Retired Emperor Gaozong supported peace between the Song and Jin. Despite these facts, Retired Emperor Gaozong was able to intervene in the choice of state councilors throughout the reign of Xiaozong. Under these circumstances, when Xiaozong tried his utmost to implement policy decisions that he desired, it appears that the only method available to him was to employ the politics of reliance on close advisors that circumvented the office of councilors of state. In other words, as Xiaozong was confronted by the extraordinary circumstance of the manifestation of the retired emperor in the political sphere, he relied on the military officials who were his close advisors, and the increasing concentration of power in the emperor was unavoidable.|
|Appears in Collections:||71巻1号|
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