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Title: <論文>軍政下アルゼンチンの移民コミュニティと「日系失踪者」の政治参加
Other Titles: La colectividad and the Japanese Disappeared people under the Regime of Military Junta in Argentina
Authors: 石田, 智恵  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: ISHIDA, Chie
Keywords: アルゼンチン
Military regime
disappeared people
Japanese community
Issue Date: 31-Mar-2015
Publisher: 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科 文化人類学分野
Journal title: コンタクト・ゾーン = Contact zone
Volume: 7
Issue: 2014
Start page: 56
End page: 82
Abstract: 本論文は、1970年代後半アルゼンチンの軍事政権下で反体制派弾圧の方法として生み出された「失踪者」の大量創出という文脈において、日本人移民とその子孫、およびかれらのコミュニティがどのような位置を占めていたか、また「失踪」にいたった日系人たちの政治参加において出自やネイションはいかなる意味を持っていたのかについて、軍政下の国民社会をコンタクト・ゾーンとして捉えることで考察する。軍部は「反乱分子」とみなした人々を次々と拉致・拘留・拷問しながら、被害者を「失踪者」と呼んで行為を否認することで、社会全体を恐怖によって沈黙させた。この体制はコンタクト・ゾーンそのものを消失させようとするものである。日系コミュニティは、アルゼンチン社会における「日本人」に対する肯定的イメージの保守を内部規範とし、個人の政治への参加をタブーとすることで、軍政に翼賛的なモデル・マイノリティを生み出す装置として機能していた。70年代の若者たち「二世」の多くは「日本人」の規範を抑圧と感じ、そこからの離脱に向かった。重複する国家とコミュニティの規範を破り、別様の社会を求めて政治に参加することは「失踪」の対象となった。「日系失踪者」たちの思想や行動についての周囲の人々の語りから、かれらが身を投じた政治とは、個人の社会性・政治性の否定の上に成り立つ国民の安全保障を拒否し、コミュニティを媒介したネイションへの同一化ではなく、個人の位置を自ら社会につくりだすことで社会を変えるための方法であったと理解できる。
This paper focuses on the situation of Japanese immigrants and their descendants, as well as their community in Argentina, within the context of Argentina's military junta in the late 1970s, especially its method of repression: the disappearance of people. I approach this topic by considering Argentine national society under the regime named "National Reorganization Process" as a contact zone between argentinos and japoneses. The Military Junta built in March 1976 declared an "anti-subversive war"; as the central 082 operation of that, they abducted a large number of people estimated or labeled as "subversives" to torture them clandestinely and simultaneously denied their conduct of repression by designating the detained people as the "disappeared". Other people had to choose not to speak about what was happening in order to escape from this operation. This methodology ruled the whole national society by the fear of disappearing, which had the effect of silencing counter action and of eliminating the contact zone along with the people. Within the Japanese immigrant community called la colectividad a normative order had been established over the members to maintain a common positive image toward Japanese among other Argentines, such as "honest", "not criminal" and "low profile". In order to do that, the Japanese immigrants were ordered not to engage in politics. This order resonated with that of the military government. In this way la colectividad had filled the role of an apparatus of producing a model minority, which supports the military regime. Most second-generation Japanese in that period tended to feel those community orders as oppression. Among them, those who had sympathized with the leftist thought chose to leave the community to participate in political activities against the Japanese-national norm. Some of these activists have disappeared, but we can approach their thoughts and conducts by listening to their families and friends who are willing to break the silence. The politics for the disappeared japoneses. can be understood as a way of criticizing the national and community regime built over the elimination of individual political space and searching for an alternative society which would not totalize them under the name of Japanese.
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