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Title: Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on 1-min cadence data
Authors: Maehara, Hiroyuki
Shibayama, Takuya
Notsu, Yuta
Notsu, Shota
Honda, Satoshi
Nogami, Daisaku
Shibata, Kazunari
Author's alias: 野上, 大作
柴田, 一成
Keywords: Superflares
Solar flares
Stellar flares
Solar-type stars
Extreme space weather events
Issue Date: 29-Apr-2015
Publisher: SpringerOpen
Journal title: Earth, Planets and Space
Volume: 67
Thesis number: 59
Abstract: We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using Kepler data with 1-min sampling in order to detect superflares with a short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of 10<sup>32</sup> to 10<sup>36</sup> erg. Some superflares show multiple peaks with the peak separation of the order of 100 to 1, 000 s which is comparable to the periods of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found that the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution (dN/dE∞E <sup>-α</sup> ) with α∼-1.5 for 10<sup>33</sup><E<10<sup>36</sup> erg which is consistent with the previous results. The average occurrence rate of superflares with the energy of 10<sup>33</sup> erg which is equivalent to X100 solar flares is about once in 500 to 600 years. The upper limit of energy released by superflares is basically comparable to a fraction of the magnetic energy stored near starspots which is estimated from the photometry. We also found that the duration of superflares (τ) increases with the flare energy (E) as τ∞E <sup>0.39 ± 0.03</sup>. This can be explained if we assume the time scale of flares is determined by the Alfvén time.
Rights: © 2015 Maehara et al.; licensee Springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/212432
DOI(Published Version): 10.1186/s40623-015-0217-z
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