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Title: Characterization of shikonin derivative secretion in Lithospermum erythrorhizon hairy roots as a model of lipid-soluble metabolite secretion from plants
Authors: Tatsumi, Kanade
Yano, Mariko
Kaminade, Kenta
Sugiyama, Akifumi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Sato, Mayuko
Toyooka, Kiminori
Aoyama, Takashi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Sato, Fumihiko  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Yazaki, Kazufumi  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Author's alias: 杉山, 暁史
矢﨑, 一史
Keywords: shikonin
Lithospermum erythrorhizon
hairy root
lipid secretion
actin filament
brefeldin A body
Issue Date: 6-Jul-2016
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Journal title: Frontiers in Plant Science
Volume: 7
Thesis number: 1066
Abstract: Shikonin derivatives are specialized lipophilic metabolites, secreted in abundant amounts from the root epidermal cells of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Because they have anti-microbial activities, these compounds, which are derivatives of red naphthoquinone, are thought to serve as a chemical barrier for plant roots. The mechanism by which they are secreted from cells is, however, largely unknown. The shikonin production system in L. erythrorhizon is an excellent model for studying the mechanism by which lipophilic compounds are secreted from plant cells, because of the abundant amounts of these compounds produced by L. erythrorhizon, the 0 to 100% inducibility of their production, the light-specific inhibition of production, and the visibility of these products as red pigments. To date, many factors regulating shikonin biosynthesis have been identified, but no mechanism that regulates shikonin secretion without inhibiting biosynthesis has been detected. This study showed that inhibitors of membrane traffic strongly inhibit shikonin secretion without inhibiting shikonin production, suggesting that the secretion of shikonin derivatives into the apoplast utilizes pathways common to the ADP-ribosylation factor/guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF/GEF) system and actin filament polymerization, at least in part. These findings provide clues about the machinery involved in secreting lipid-soluble metabolites from cells.
Rights: © 2016 Tatsumi, Yano, Kaminade, Sugiyama, Sato, Toyooka, Aoyama, Sato and Yazaki. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
DOI(Published Version): 10.3389/fpls.2016.01066
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