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Title: Morphogenesis of the Inner Ear at Different Stages of Normal Human Development
Authors: Toyoda, Saki
Shiraki, Naoto
Yamada, Shigehito  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Uwabe, Chigako
Imai, Hirohiko  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Matsuda, Tetsuya  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Yoneyama, Akio
Takeda, Tohoru
Takakuwa, Tetsuya  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Author's alias: 山田, 重人
松田, 哲也
高桑, 徹也
Keywords: inner ear
membranous labyrinth
three-dimensional kinetics
human embryo
MR imaging
phase-contrast X-ray CT
Issue Date: Dec-2015
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Inc.
Journal title: The Anatomical Record
Volume: 298
Issue: 12
Start page: 2081
End page: 2090
Abstract: This study examined the external morphology and morphometry of the human embryonic inner ear membranous labyrinth and documented its three-dimensional position in the developing embryo using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 27 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and the postembryonic phase during trimester 1 (approximately 6-10 weeks after fertilization) were included. The otic vesicle elongated along the dorso-ventral axis and differentiated into the end lymphatic appendage and cochlear duct (CD) at CS 17. The spiral course of the CD began at CS18, with anterior and posterior semicircular ducts (SDs) forming prominent circles with a common crus. The spiral course of the CD comprised more than two turns at the postembryonic phase, at which time the height of the CD was evident. A linear increase was observed in the length of anterior, posterior, and lateral SDs, in that order, and the length of the CD increased exponentially over the course of development. Bending in the medial direction was observed between the cochlear and vestibular parts from the latero-caudal view, with the angle decreasing during development. The position of the inner ear was stable throughout the period of observation on the lateral to ventral side of the rhombencephalon, caudal to the pontine flexure, and adjacent to the auditory ganglia. The plane of the lateral semicircular canal was approximately 8.0°-14.6° with respect to the cranial caudal (z-)axis, indicating that the orientation of the inner ear changes during growth to adulthood.
Rights: This is the accepted version of the following article: [Toyoda, S., Shiraki, N., Yamada, S., Uwabe, C., Imai, H., Matsuda, T., Yoneyama, A., Takeda, T. and Takakuwa, T. (2015), Morphogenesis of the Inner Ear at Different Stages of Normal Human Development. Anat Rec, 298: 2081–2090. doi: 10.1002/ar.23268], which has been published in final form at This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
The full-text file will be made open to the public on 17 November 2016 in accordance with publisher's 'Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving'.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1002/ar.23268
PubMed ID: 26369281
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