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Title: <特集論文 2>物語化に抗する沈黙とアーカイヴ-- フランスのジプシー共同体における二種の記憶行為をめぐる考察
Other Titles: Silence and Archives against Narrative:A Study of Two Kinds of Memory Practice among French Gypsies
Authors: 左地, 亮子  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: SACHI, Ryoko
Keywords: ジプシー
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2018
Publisher: 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科 文化人類学分野
Journal title: コンタクト・ゾーン
Volume: 10
Issue: 2018
Start page: 240
End page: 275
Abstract: フランスのジプシー、マヌーシュは、死者について沈黙し、それを敬意の振舞いだと説明する。そこでは、死者の個人的な記憶を集団的領域に開示し、生者が代表=代理するという記憶の伝承法は、誤りや歪曲の可能性を含むがゆえに回避すべきこととされる。その一方、近年のフランスでは、第二次世界大戦期の強制収容をめぐって、ジプシー活動家によるコメモラシオン運動が活発化している。収容者に関する記録を公表し、収容所跡地に慰霊碑を建て、追悼式典を開催するこの運動は、一見すると、マヌーシュの沈黙と対立する。しかし本稿では、コメモラシオン運動のなかで用いられるアーカイヴという「記録と想起の媒体」に着目することで、表象をめぐる非文字/文字の静態的な対立をかわすように、二種の記憶行為が繋がりあうさまを示す。非ジプシーにより作成、収集、再発見された諸個人のアーカイヴをインターネット上に開示して活動家が立ち上げる「記憶の場」に現れるのは、「ジプシーの歴史」という全体的な物語ではなく、むしろそれへとたやすく溶解していかない個別的で特異な生の痕跡である。本稿では、こうした記憶の個別性と共同性に関する問題をアーカイヴやイメージをめぐる議論を通して考察することで、マヌーシュの沈黙、活動家のアーカイヴ開示という二種の記憶行為が、集団の物語に回収されない個人の生/記憶をとりまく分有の体験を触発することを明らかにする。
Manouches, known as Gypsies living in France, do not speak of their dead and explain this form of silence as a "sign of respect". They avoid disclosing personal memories of the dead in the public sphere for fear that such an act of "representation" might treat incorrectly or distort the dead's being. Whereas, in recent years, commemorative practices surrounding the internment of Gypsies during World War II are gaining momentum in France. Some Gypsy activists have carried out a series of commemorative practices, which consist in the disclosure of archival materials related to Gypsies interned in "camps for Nomads", as well as the creation of memorials, monuments, and ceremonies to honor the victims. Their attitudes toward their memory are seemingly opposed to those of Manouches. This paper examines these two kinds of memory practice, commemoration and its evasion, among French Gypsies. Its aim is not only to explore significant gaps and differences among them, but also to illuminate their connection to one another, deconstructing the opposition between silence and archives and between oral and written memory. To do this, it is necessary to investigate the effect of archives used in the commemorative practices for Nomads' camps. Gypsy activists try to create the "lieu de mémoire" (memory place), by releasing on the Internet numerous archives of the victims such as a photographic identity document (Anthropometric Booklet for Nomads), which is made out and collected by the institutions of the state for surveillance and internment of French Gypsies. It is apparent that the main purpose of this commemoration is to gain the public recognition of the persecution toward French Gypsies, which has remained as "forgotten history". However, beyond the intentions of the activists to represent the collective history of French Gypsies, what appears in this online memorial site is not a totalizing story which reduces individuals called Gypsies to a single category or their personal experiences to a single history, but rather plentiful traces of individuality i.e. traces of "a life" that each person experienced in a specific and unique way. It is an effect of the archives as image, as a medium of remembrance. In such an effect that archives can have beyond and against narratives, activists' archival work and Manouches' silence join each other, both inspiring experiences of community not as a whole but as "partage" (sharingdivision) of the one's unique life and memory.
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