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Title: Skeletal determinants of tail length are different between macaque species groups
Authors: Wakamori, Hikaru
Hamada, Yuzuru
Author's alias: 若森, 参
濱田, 穣
Issue Date: 4-Feb-2019
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal title: Scientific Reports
Volume: 9
Thesis number: 1289
Abstract: Macaques (genus Macaca) are known to have wide variation in tail length. Within each species group tail length varies, which could be associated with a phylogenetic trend seen in caudal vertebral morphology. We compared numbers and lengths of caudal vertebrae in species of the fascicularis group, M. assamensis (sinica group), M. nemestrina (silenus group), and those obtained from reports for an additional 11 species. Our results suggest different trends in number and lengths. The caudal vertebral length profiles revealed upward convex patterns for macaques with relative tail lengths of ≥15%, and flat to decreasing for those with relative tail lengths of ≤12%. They varied between species groups in terms of the lengths of proximal vertebrae, position and length of the longest vertebra, numbers and lengths of distal vertebrae, and total number of vertebrae. In silenus and sinica group, the vertebral length is the major skeletal determinant of tail length. On the other hand, the vertebral number is the skeletal determinant of tail length in the fascicularis group. Tail length variation among species groups are caused by different mechanisms which reflect the evolutionary history of macaques.
Rights: © The Author(s) 2019. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit
DOI(Published Version): 10.1038/s41598-018-37963-z
PubMed ID: 30718761
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