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Title: <論説>魏書序紀考証
Other Titles: <Articles>A Historiographical Study of the Xuji of the Weishu
Authors: 吉本, 道雅  KAKEN_name
Author's alias: YOSHIMOTO, Michimasa
Issue Date: 31-May-2010
Publisher: 史学研究会 (京都大学大学院文学研究科内)
Journal title: 史林 = THE SHIRIN or the JOURNAL OF HISTORY
Volume: 93
Issue: 3
Start page: 418
End page: 446
Abstract: 三世紀以前の鮮卑史に関わる資料の一つに、五胡十六国時代の鮮卑系諸国家の建国説話がある。本稿は、そのうち最も豊富な内容をもつ『魏書』序紀を分析し、その所見を踏まえて、三世紀以前の鮮卑史の一端を解明するものである。第一章では、序紀の年代観を解明し、道武帝期の東晋への対抗意識から、序紀が土徳の拓跋が火徳の漢を継承することを主張するものであること、始均・成帝・宣帝は、夏殷周秦の開祖、漢高祖・匈奴冒頓単干と拓跋との対等性および拓跋が匈奴に代わる北族の覇者であることを主張するため創作されたこと、献帝において歴史的実在性がようやく認められることを確認する。ついで神元帝の年数に着目し、その年数を三十年とし、魏晋紀年を用いた原序紀が存在したことを推定する。以上の所見に基づき、第二章では、序章を実録とみなす鮮卑考古学の現状を批判的に検討し、ついで三世紀における拓跋の実年代と所在とを確認し、それを外蒙古にあった鮮卑系諸部の南下という二世紀末以降の動向に位置づける。
One of the written sources on the history of the Xianbei tribe before the 3rd century is a group of narratives of the founding of the Xianbei-related states that were produced during the Sixteen Kingdoms era. Among these, the Xuji of the Weishu has the richest content. In this paper, the author attempts to analyze the Xuji, and based on this analysis, clarifies certain problems in history of the Xianbei before the 3rd century. In the 1st section, he elucidates the chronology of the Xuji, and confirms that the Xuji stresses the succession of Tuoba (with Earth Virtue) after the Han dynasty (with Fire Virtue) out of a sense of rivalry with the Eastern Jin dynasty, that Shijun was invented as an equivalent of the ancestors of the Xia, Shang, Zhou, and Qin dynasties, that Emperor Cheng was created to correspond to Gaozu of the Han dynasty and Xiaongnu's ancestor Maodun Shanyu, and that Emperor Xuan was created to emphasize that the Tuoba would exercise hegemony over the northern tribes in place of the Xiongnu. The author also confirms that the historical reality of the Tuoba begins only with Emperor Xian. He then focuses on the length of Emperor Shenyuan's reign and posits the existence of an original Xuji that used era names of the Wei and Jin dynasties and gave 30 years to Emperor Shenyuan's reign. Based on these observations, the author critically examines the state of archaeological studies on the Xianbei that treat the Xuji as a genuine historical record in the 2nd section, then confirms the actual dates and locations of the Tuoba in the 3rd century, and finally assesses them in terms of the trend of the southward movement of the Xianbei tribes from Outer Mongolia.
DOI: 10.14989/shirin_93_418
Appears in Collections:93巻3号

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