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Title: Wild chimpanzees deprived a leopard of its kill: Implications for the origin of hominin confrontational scavenging
Authors: Nakamura, Michio
Hosaka, Kazuhiko
Itoh, Noriko
Matsumoto, Takuya
Matsusaka, Takahisa
Nakazawa, Nobuko
Nishie, Hitonaru
Sakamaki, Tetsuya
Shimada, Masaki
Takahata, Yukio
Yamagami, Masahiro
Zamma, Koichiro
Author's alias: 中村, 美知夫
保坂, 和彦
伊藤, 詞子
松本, 卓也
松阪, 崇久
仲澤, 伸子
西江, 仁徳
坂巻, 哲也
島田, 将喜
高畑, 由起夫
山上, 昌紘
座馬, 耕一郎
Keywords: Chimpanzee
Confrontational scavenging
Animal carcass
Mahale Mountains
Issue Date: Jun-2019
Publisher: Elsevier BV
Journal title: Journal of Human Evolution
Volume: 131
Start page: 129
End page: 138
Abstract: This study reports the first observed case of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) obtaining animal prey freshly killed by a sympatric leopard (Panthera pardus) and scavenging it with the leopard still nearby. This observation has important implications for the emergence of confrontational scavenging, which may have played a significant role in human evolution. Many scholars agree that eating meat became important during human evolution, and hominins first obtained meat by scavenging. However, it is debatable whether scavenging behavior was “passive” or “confrontational (power).” The latter is more dangerous, as it requires facing the original predator, and it is thus considered to have been important for the evolution of several human traits, including cooperation and language. Chimpanzees do scavenge meat, although rarely, but no previous evidence of confrontational scavenging has hitherto emerged. Thus, it was assumed that they are averse to confrontation with even leopard-sized predators. However, in the observed case the chimpanzees frequently emitted waa barks, which indicated that they were aware of the leopard's presence but they nevertheless continued to eat the scavenged meat. In addition, we compiled and reviewed 49 cases of chimpanzee encounters with animal carcasses in the Mahale Mountains of Tanzania in 1980–2017. Chimpanzees scavenged meat in 36.7% of these cases, and tended to eat the meat when it was fresh or if the animal species was usually hunted by chimpanzees. However, no evidence indicated that carcasses were avoided when leopard involvement was likely. These results suggest that chimpanzee-sized hominins could potentially confront and deprive leopard-size carnivores of meat.
Description: 野生チンパンジーがヒョウの獲物を食べることを初めて観察 --人類の祖先は肉食獣から獲物を奪っていたか--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2019-04-16.
Rights: © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
The full-text file will be made open to the public on 01 June 2020 in accordance with publisher's 'Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving'.
This is not the published version. Please cite only the published version. この論文は出版社版でありません。引用の際には出版社版をご確認ご利用ください。
DOI(Published Version): 10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.03.011
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