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|Other Titles:||Chorography of Qianling Prefecture during the Qin Dynasty : Qin Military Control of the Occupied Territory and Its Garrison|
|Author's alias:||Miyake, Kiyoshi|
|Journal title:||東洋史研究 = THE TOYOSHI-KENKYU : The journal of Oriental Researches|
|Abstract:||Based on the Liye 里耶 Qin strips, there existed three districts (鄕) in Qianling 遷陵, which are thought to have been located along the You 酉 river. The number of households registered in this prefecture was a mere 150-200, and three groups constituted the population : immigrants who came during the Qin occupation, colonists before unification, and natives. Among the native populace, some groups may have submitted to the Qin authority while maintaining their old social order. They were likely to have been divided from other commoners, and separately registered as "new citizens" (新黔首). Moreover, it seems reasonable to suppose that there were groups of men who were not under the administrative control of the Qin. Although the registered households were very few, the prescribed number of officials in Qianling was over 100. In addition, about 1, 000 convicts and over 600 soldiers were stationed there. This fact indicates the existence of members of the populace who had not submitted to the Qin in this area. Qianling prefecture played a role as a bulwark against hostile peoples who would invade the Xiang 湘 river system through the You river. In this sense, Qianling was a prefecture on the frontier. There were several types of soldiers stationed in Qianling : including gengshu 更戍 (short-term soldiers conscripted by rotation), rongshu 冗戍 (long-term military volunteers), and fashu 罰戍 (criminals forced into military service). Certain tendencies concerning their hometowns and times of conscription can be seen for each type of soldier. For example, soldiers tended to be conscripted from Nan 南 commandery just after the unification, and fashu from "the region within the passes" (關中), or the relatively old territory in "the east of the passes" (關東), were also dispatched to Qianling. Later, around the 33rd year of the reign of the First Emperor, the year when the expedition to Lingnan 嶺南 started, gengshu from the region occupied just before the unification appeared in this prefecture. It was the Xianwei 縣尉, or the Prefectural Commandant, who took charge of these soldiers. As an official in charge of prefectural military administration, the Xianwei was somewhat independent from the civil administrative organization led by the Xianling 縣令, or Prefectural Director. It was the Xiaozhang 校長, or the Guard Commander, who led the troops as a subordinate of the Xianwei. Soldiers were organized into units of five or ten, and these units were commanded by a Dunzhang 敦長. In addition to this organization of the prefectural army, commanders who belonged directly to the commandery were stationed in the Qianling prefecture with their troops. It is thought that they were likely to have been outside the control of the Xianwei, so we can assume that the total scale of the garrisons in Qianling was larger than that of the prefectural army, which was composed of about 600 soldiers.|
|Appears in Collections:||75巻1号|
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