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Title: Exploration behavior of group-in-a-box layouts
Authors: Ueno, Yuki
Natsukawa, Hiroaki  kyouindb  KAKEN_id
Aoyama, Nozomi
Koyamada, Koji  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid (unconfirmed)
Author's alias: 夏川, 浩明
青山, 望
小山田, 耕二
Keywords: Visual search
Group-in-a-box layout
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2019
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Journal title: Food Science and Human Wellness
Volume: 3
Issue: 1
Start page: 38
End page: 47
Abstract: To improve visualization, it is necessary to optimize the design by analyzing the behavior of users as well as improving the evaluation index of the computational experiment and the task performance (e.g., the correct answer rate and completion time) in the user experiment. Although various studies have investigated the influence of user behavior on the evaluation of visualization, majority of these studies focused on simple visualization tasks. A simple task does not indicate a simple visualization comprising a few visualization elements but a task in which the information obtained from visualization is the only clue for completing the task. However, a few studies have targeted complicated tasks in which multiple information obtained from visualization is considered to be a clue for completing the task regardless of the number of elements that are contained in the visualization. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the behavior of the participants who have performed complicated tasks. We selected two types of group-in-a-box (GIB) layouts, which can be considered to be a complicated visualization method, as the target of the user experiment. In the user experiment, participants were asked to perform an exploration task specific to GIB layouts; which group has the maximum number of intra-edges? We also collected the eye-tracking data in addition to task performance. The results showed that the correct answer rate is considerably affected by the visualization factor; whether the correct answer, the box with maximum number of intra-edges, is the box with the largest area. Furthermore, an analysis of the collected eye-tracking data revealed that this visualization factor affected the exploration behavior of the participants; however, it did not affect the location at which the participants were focused on. The obtained results indicated that the visualization elements that were not considered by the visualization designer can influence the task of extracting information from the data. Therefore, designers have to configure the visualization by considering the visual cognitive behavior of the users.
Rights: © 2019 Zhejiang University and Zhejiang University Press. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
DOI(Published Version): 10.1016/j.visinf.2019.03.005
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