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Title: Dietary habits, body image, and health service access related to cardiovascular diseases in rural Zambia: A qualitative study
Authors: Tateyama, Yukiko
Musumari, Patou Masika
Techasrivichien, Teeranee
Suguimoto, S. Pilar
Zulu, Richard
Dube, Christopher
Feldman, Mitchell D.
Ono-Kihara, Masako
Kihara, Masahiro
Author's alias: 立山, 由紀子
Issue Date: 22-Feb-2019
Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Journal title: PLOS ONE
Volume: 14
Issue: 2
Thesis number: e0212739
Abstract: [Background]Cardiovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, including Zambia, where cardiovascular diseases account for 8% of the mortality rates. Despite an increasing number of cardiovascular disease-related studies in Zambia, qualitative studies exploring how cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors are understood in the socioeconomic and cultural contexts are still few. This study, therefore, aimed to analyze the beliefs, perceptions, and behaviors related to cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors among the local residents of Zambia. [Methods]This qualitative study was conducted from August to September 2014 among healthy residents aged 40 years and above in a rural community in Mumbwa District. We investigated the beliefs, perceptions, and behaviors related to cardiovascular diseases and their potential risk factors in the sociocultural context of Zambia by conducting in-depth interviews and focus group interviews. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis with investigator triangulation. [Results]We conducted 34 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group interviews with 27 males and 40 females. Most participants were aware of the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases around them and correctly identified hypertension, excessive salt, sugar, and cooking oil intakes, poor quality cooking oil, consumption of meat or vegetables contaminated with chemicals, obesity, stress [“thinking too much”], lack of physical exercise, and heredity as potential risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, while smoking and alcohol were mentioned by only a few participants. However, they claimed that many of these risk factors were difficult to avoid due to ingrained taste preferences for high salt and sugar, increasingly busy lives that force them to use cooking oil to reduce preparation time, cultural preference for big body size or fatness, especially for women, stigmatized body image attached to HIV, stressful life or life events related to poverty, and financial barriers to affording quality foods and healthcare services. Limited health screening opportunities and the negative impact of HIV-related stigma on health-seeking behavior also emerged as important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. [Conclusions]This study revealed that participants are relatively well aware of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. However, they engage in high-risk health behaviors, due to ingrained taste preferences, limited knowledge, and unavoidable socioeconomic and cultural circumstances. Results suggest that prevention interventions addressing cardiovascular diseases in rural Zambia should target gaps in knowledge and socioeconomic and cultural barriers.
Rights: © 2019 Tateyama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
DOI(Published Version): 10.1371/journal.pone.0212739
PubMed ID: 30794667
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