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Title: Mass killing by female soldier larvae is adaptive for the killed male larvae in a polyembryonic wasp
Authors: Otsuki, Takahiro
Uka, Daisuke
Ito, Hiromu
Ichinose, Genki
Nii, Momoka
Morita, Satoru
Sakamoto, Takuma
Nishiko, Maaya
Tabunoki, Hiroko
Kobayashi, Kazuya  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9475-6807 (unconfirmed)
Matsuura, Kenji  kyouindb  KAKEN_id  orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9099-6694 (unconfirmed)
Yoshimura, Jin
Iwabuchi, Kikuo
Author's alias: 小林, 和也
松浦, 健二
Issue Date: 14-May-2019
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Journal title: Scientific Reports
Volume: 9
Thesis number: 7357
Abstract: Self-sacrifice is very rare among organisms. Here, we report a new and astonishing case of adaptive self-sacrifice in a polyembryonic parasitic wasp, Copidosoma floridanum. This wasp is unique in terms of its larval cloning and soldier larvae. Male clone larvae have been found to be killed by female soldier larvae, which suggests intersexual conflict between male and female larvae. However, we show here that mass killing is adaptive to all the killed males as well as the female soldiers that have conducted the killing because the killing increases their indirect fitness by promoting the reproduction of their clone sibs. We construct a simple model that shows that the optimal number of surviving males for both male and female larvae is very small but not zero. We then compare this prediction with the field data. These data agree quite well with the model predictions, showing an optimal killing rate of approximately 94–98% of the males in a mixed brood. The underlying mechanism of this mass kill is almost identical to the local competition for mates that occurs in other wasp species. The maternal control of the sex ratio during oviposition, which is well known in other hymenopterans, is impossible in this polyembryonic wasp. Thus, this mass kill is necessary to maximize the fitness of the female killers and male victims, which can be seen as an analogy of programmed cell death in multicellular organisms.
Rights: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Te images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2433/244591
DOI(Published Version): 10.1038/s41598-019-43643-3
PubMed ID: 31089143
Appears in Collections:Journal Articles

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